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There are many reasons to “Vote with Your Feet” and move from corrupt, statist, liberal-Democrat, high-crime Nanny States to a low-population-density, extremely low-crime, limited government, libertarian, Constitution-loving, Pro-Second-Amendment, Patriotic, moral-conservative, God-fearing, safe-haven refuge in the American Redoubt of Idaho - Montana - Wyoming - Eastern Oregon - Eastern Washington - Northern Utah


Vote with your feet by moving (http://WalkingToFreedom.com) to the libertarian safe refuge of the “American Redoubt” in Idaho - Montana - Wyoming - Eastern Oregon - Eastern Washington - Northern Utah or the Texas Redoubt or the Tennessee Cumberland Redoubt (http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-of-the-east) for more Bill of Rights freedom, especially Second Amendment gun rights — see

https://survivalblog.com/retreatareas

for state rankings,

https://www.SurvivalRetreatConsulting.com,

http://www.RevRealty.us,

https://www.SurvivalRealty.com

RadioFreeRedoubt.com podcast,

CharlesCarrollSociety.com podcast by a conservative black Catholic Redoubter.

Sadly, the beautiful state of California is now a lost cause politically. But still keep fighting to restore her greatness.

NRA Life Member; also member of http://GunOwners.org of America, https://NRAila.org, Second Amendment Foundation https://SAF.org, https://CalGunsFoundation.org, https://CRPA.org, https://GunOwnersCA.com, https://NSSF.org, https://JPFO.org, https://Permies.com, https://thesurvivalpodcast.com Member Support Brigade, the Wolf Pack at https://thesurvivalistblog.net, Permaculture Homesteader

American Redoubt Pages: https://www.survivalmonkey.com/members/americanredoubt1776.11868


What exactly is the American Redoubt? See https://www.survivalblog.com/redoubt.html for more details from James Wesley Rawles, whose description of our Redoubt many of us wholeheartedly support.

We are “Prepared Individuals Living in Uncertain Times” is the motto of James Wesley Rawles SurvivalBlog.com.

We Vote-with-our-Feet and have prepared “For when times get tough, or even if they don't” - the motto of Jack Spirko's SurvivalPodcast (www.thesurvivalpodcast.com)

One could say that the American Redoubt was “founded” when Montana became a State of these United States of America on November 8, 1889, just 1 year before Idaho and Wyoming.

For those who are more attached to the East Coast and can't easily migrate to the American Redoubt in the Intermountain-West, we recommend the blog of the inspirational M.D. Creekmore who posted Joel M. Skousen, Author, Strategic Relocation North American Guide to Safe Places, on the Tennessee Cumberland Plateau solution to the “The East Coast Retreat Dilemma”: http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-of-the-east http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/news-eastern-redoubt-tennessee-cumberland-plateau/

“As a relocation specialist and designer, I found safe retreat locations and helped clients develop high security homes in every state of the union and you can too. The concept that anyone caught East of the Mississippi River is doomed is only partially valid and highly exaggerated. You can achieve a significantly higher level of safety going beyond the Appalachians to the high plateau regions of Tennessee and Kentucky. This massive and relatively unpopulated area is called the Cumberland Plateau—most of which falls within the state of Tennessee.” Joel M. Skousen (https://joelskousen.com/strategic.html) is a relocation specialist and author of “Strategic Relocation North American Guide to Safe Places.” https://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-east-aka-cumberland-plateau-ot-tennessee/

washington_state

: <small>For the United States Capital, see Washington, D.C.</small> : <small>For the U.S. President see George Washington</small>

Washington, often referred to as Washington State, was the forty-second state to enter into the Union, on Nov. 11, 1889. The state is named after the first president George Washington. Its capital is Olympia, and its largest city is Seattle. It is located at the extreme northwest corner of the 48 contiguous American states.

Geography

The state has a notably wide variety of terrain and boasts of three national parks. The western edge of Washington borders the Pacific Ocean and has the only temperate rain forests in the country, the Hoh, Queets, and Quinault. The Olympic Mountains rise from sea level to nearly 8,000 feet in elevation. Puget Sound, gouged by the Vashon sheet in the last ice age, brings ocean access to ports far inland. The Cascade Mountain Range bisects the state from north to south and contains several large volcanoes, both active and dormant. The eastern half of Washington is much drier, with a continental climate and much farmland irrigated by Columbia River dams and irrigation works constructed in the time of the New Deal.

Politics

Washington was the first state to allow women to vote in local elections, since 1855.

The 2004 election created controversy due to a virtual tie between candidates conservative Republican Dino Rossi and liberal Democrat Christine Gregoire. Rossi won both the original election and the first recount, but the second recount gave the election to Christine Gregoire by a mere 129 votes.://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis.cgi/web/vortex/display?slug=webguvrace30&date=20041230&query=2004+election+Rossi+results Controversially, on the second “recount,” more votes were counted than ballots were cast in Washington state.

Since 2007, Washington has offered domestic partnerships, which are similar to same sex marriage.<ref>The ''Miami Herald'' Online</ref>

In 2009, Washington was the first state in the United States to affirm civil unions by a public vote (Ref. 71). In 2012, they continued this continued this trajectory by fully implementing marriage equality by a vote of the people. The same year, they fully legalized marijuana possession.

Washington state has consistently been a blue state since 1988, with the last winning Republican being Ronald Wilson Reagan.

<ref>237 word quotation: Fair Use Source: Rawles, James Wesley. Rawles on Retreats and Relocation. 1st. Clearwater, Idaho: The Clearwater Press, 2007. p. 13. Print. see James Wesley Rawles on Fair Use</ref><ref> http://www.survivalblog.com/retreatareas.html Recommended Retreat Areas accessed March 30, 2014</ref>

Eastern Washington

Eastern Washington is in the libertarian conservative preparedness and liberty-minded red state part of the liberal blue state of Washington. Eastern Washington is part of the American Redoubt.

Eastern Washington is the portion of the US state of Washington east of the Cascade Range. The region contains the city of Spokane (the second largest city in the state), the Tri-Cities, the Columbia River and the Grand Coulee Dam, the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and the fertile farmlands of the Yakima River Valley and the Palouse. Unlike Western Washington, the climate of Eastern Washington is dry, including some near-desert environments.

Statehood - 51st State?

There have been sporadic movements to create a 51st state out of Eastern Washington by splitting the current state down the Cascades, but proposals have rarely progressed out of the state legislature's committees. Recent proposals were made in 1996, 1999, and 2005. Proposed names for the new state have included Lincoln, and Columbia, or simply Eastern Washington. Many of these proposals were to include the Idaho Panhandle.

Eastern Washington tends to vote Republican, whereas Western Washington usually supports the Democrats.

Population

Compared to Western Washington, Eastern Washington has roughly twice the land area and one-third the population. According to the United States Census Bureau the population estimate as of 2004 was 1,371,802. The population growth rate between the two is roughly the same.

Climate

The most significant difference between Eastern Washington and the western half of the state is its climate. While the west half of the state is located in a rainy oceanic climate, the eastern half receives little rainfall due to the rainshadow created by the Cascade Mountains. Also, due to being farther from the sea, the east side has both hotter summers and colder winters than the west. Most communities in Eastern Washington, for example, have significant yearly snowfall, while in the west snowfall is minimal and not seen every year. The east and west do still have some climatic traits in common, though: more rainfall in winter than summer, a lack of severe storms, and milder temperature ranges than more inland locations.

There is some variation in both rainfall throughout Eastern Washington. Generally, lower elevations are both hotter and drier than higher elevations. This is easily seen in the comparison between low-elevation Richland with higher elevation Spokane.

See Also

References

<references/>

States of the United States American Redoubt

: <small>For the United States Capital, see Washington, D.C.</small> : <small>For the U.S. President see George Washington</small>

Washington, often referred to as Washington State, was the forty-second state to enter into the Union, on Nov. 11, 1889. The state is named after the first president George Washington. Its capital is Olympia, and its largest city is Seattle. It is located at the extreme northwest corner of the 48 contiguous American states.

Geography

The state has a notably wide variety of terrain and boasts of three national parks. The western edge of Washington borders the Pacific Ocean and has the only temperate rain forests in the country, the Hoh, Queets, and Quinault. The Olympic Mountains rise from sea level to nearly 8,000 feet in elevation. Puget Sound, gouged by the Vashon sheet in the last ice age, brings ocean access to ports far inland. The Cascade Mountain Range bisects the state from north to south and contains several large volcanoes, both active and dormant. The eastern half of Washington is much drier, with a continental climate and much farmland irrigated by Columbia River dams and irrigation works constructed in the time of the New Deal.

Politics

Washington was the first state to allow women to vote in local elections, since 1855.

The 2004 election created controversy due to a virtual tie between candidates conservative Republican Dino Rossi and liberal Democrat Christine Gregoire. Rossi won both the original election and the first recount, but the second recount gave the election to Christine Gregoire by a mere 129 votes.://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis.cgi/web/vortex/display?slug=webguvrace30&date=20041230&query=2004+election+Rossi+results Controversially, on the second “recount,” more votes were counted than ballots were cast in Washington state.

Since 2007, Washington has offered domestic partnerships, which are similar to same sex marriage.<ref>The ''Miami Herald'' Online</ref>

In 2009, Washington was the first state in the United States to affirm civil unions by a public vote (Ref. 71). In 2012, they continued this continued this trajectory by fully implementing marriage equality by a vote of the people. The same year, they fully legalized marijuana possession.

Washington state has consistently been a blue state since 1988, with the last winning Republican being Ronald Wilson Reagan.

<ref>237 word quotation: Fair Use Source: Rawles, James Wesley. Rawles on Retreats and Relocation. 1st. Clearwater, Idaho: The Clearwater Press, 2007. p. 13. Print. see James Wesley Rawles on Fair Use</ref><ref> http://www.survivalblog.com/retreatareas.html Recommended Retreat Areas accessed March 30, 2014</ref>

Eastern Washington

Eastern Washington is in the libertarian conservative preparedness and liberty-minded red state part of the liberal blue state of Washington. Eastern Washington is part of the American Redoubt.

Eastern Washington is the portion of the US state of Washington east of the Cascade Range. The region contains the city of Spokane (the second largest city in the state), the Tri-Cities, the Columbia River and the Grand Coulee Dam, the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and the fertile farmlands of the Yakima River Valley and the Palouse. Unlike Western Washington, the climate of Eastern Washington is dry, including some near-desert environments.

Statehood - 51st State?

There have been sporadic movements to create a 51st state out of Eastern Washington by splitting the current state down the Cascades, but proposals have rarely progressed out of the state legislature's committees. Recent proposals were made in 1996, 1999, and 2005. Proposed names for the new state have included Lincoln, and Columbia, or simply Eastern Washington. Many of these proposals were to include the Idaho Panhandle.

Eastern Washington tends to vote Republican, whereas Western Washington usually supports the Democrats.

Population

Compared to Western Washington, Eastern Washington has roughly twice the land area and one-third the population. According to the United States Census Bureau the population estimate as of 2004 was 1,371,802. The population growth rate between the two is roughly the same.

Climate

The most significant difference between Eastern Washington and the western half of the state is its climate. While the west half of the state is located in a rainy oceanic climate, the eastern half receives little rainfall due to the rainshadow created by the Cascade Mountains. Also, due to being farther from the sea, the east side has both hotter summers and colder winters than the west. Most communities in Eastern Washington, for example, have significant yearly snowfall, while in the west snowfall is minimal and not seen every year. The east and west do still have some climatic traits in common, though: more rainfall in winter than summer, a lack of severe storms, and milder temperature ranges than more inland locations.

There is some variation in both rainfall throughout Eastern Washington. Generally, lower elevations are both hotter and drier than higher elevations. This is easily seen in the comparison between low-elevation Richland with higher elevation Spokane.

See Also

References

<references/>

External Links

States of the United States American Redoubt

: <small>For the United States Capital, see Washington, D.C.</small> : <small>For the U.S. President see George Washington</small>

Washington, often referred to as Washington State, was the forty-second state to enter into the Union, on Nov. 11, 1889. The state is named after the first president George Washington. Its capital is Olympia, and its largest city is Seattle. It is located at the extreme northwest corner of the 48 contiguous American states.

Geography

The state has a notably wide variety of terrain and boasts of three national parks. The western edge of Washington borders the Pacific Ocean and has the only temperate rain forests in the country, the Hoh, Queets, and Quinault. The Olympic Mountains rise from sea level to nearly 8,000 feet in elevation. Puget Sound, gouged by the Vashon sheet in the last ice age, brings ocean access to ports far inland. The Cascade Mountain Range bisects the state from north to south and contains several large volcanoes, both active and dormant. The eastern half of Washington is much drier, with a continental climate and much farmland irrigated by Columbia River dams and irrigation works constructed in the time of the New Deal.

Politics

Washington was the first state to allow women to vote in local elections, since 1855.

The 2004 election created controversy due to a virtual tie between candidates conservative Republican Dino Rossi and liberal Democrat Christine Gregoire. Rossi won both the original election and the first recount, but the second recount gave the election to Christine Gregoire by a mere 129 votes.://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis.cgi/web/vortex/display?slug=webguvrace30&date=20041230&query=2004+election+Rossi+results Controversially, on the second “recount,” more votes were counted than ballots were cast in Washington state.

Since 2007, Washington has offered domestic partnerships, which are similar to same sex marriage.<ref>The ''Miami Herald'' Online</ref>

In 2009, Washington was the first state in the United States to affirm civil unions by a public vote (Ref. 71). In 2012, they continued this continued this trajectory by fully implementing marriage equality by a vote of the people. The same year, they fully legalized marijuana possession.

Washington state has consistently been a blue state since 1988, with the last winning Republican being Ronald Wilson Reagan.

<ref>237 word quotation: Fair Use Source: Rawles, James Wesley. Rawles on Retreats and Relocation. 1st. Clearwater, Idaho: The Clearwater Press, 2007. p. 13. Print. see James Wesley Rawles on Fair Use</ref><ref> http://www.survivalblog.com/retreatareas.html Recommended Retreat Areas accessed March 30, 2014</ref>

See Also

References

<references/>

External Links

Western United States Washington State Eastern Washington American Redoubt Pacific Northwest West Coast Pacific Northwest

Liberals Welfare State Naughty State List Liberal States Blue States

Washington

is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States located north of Oregon, west of Idaho, and south of the Canadian province of British Columbia on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Named after George Washington, the first President of the United States, the state was carved out of the western part of the Washington Territory which had been ceded by Britain in 1846 by the Oregon Treaty as a settlement of the Oregon Boundary Dispute. It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889.

Washington is the 18th most extensive and the 13th most populous of the 50 United States. Approximately 60 percent of Washington's residents live in the Seattle metropolitan area, the center of transportation, business, and industry along the Puget Sound region of the Salish Sea, an inlet of the Pacific consisting of numerous islands, deep fjords, and bays carved out by glaciers. The remainder of the state consists of deep rainforests in the west, mountain ranges in the west, center, northeast and far southeast, and a semi-arid eastern basin given over to intensive agriculture. After California, Washington is the second most populous state on the West Coast and in the Western United States.

Washington is a leading lumber producer. Its rugged surface is rich in stands of Douglas fir, hemlock, ponderosa and white pine, spruce, larch, and cedar. The state is the biggest producer of apples, lentils, dry edible peas, hops, pears, red raspberries, spearmint oil, and sweet cherries, and ranks high in the production of apricots, asparagus, grapes, peppermint oil, and potatoes. Livestock and livestock products make important contributions to total farm revenue and the commercial fishing catch of salmon, halibut, and bottomfish makes a significant contribution to the state's economy.

Manufacturing industries in Washington include aircraft and missiles, shipbuilding and other transportation equipment, lumber, food processing, metals and metal products, chemicals, and machinery. Washington has over 1,000 dams, including the Grand Coulee Dam, built for a variety of purposes including irrigation, power, flood control, and water storage.

Although its official, unambiguous name is “The State of Washington,” the state's name is often reversed and referred to as “Washington state” to distinguish it from Washington, D.C., also named for George Washington. Another nickname is “the Evergreen State.” Its largest city is Seattle, situated in the west, followed by Spokane, located in the east, and its capital is Olympia.

Etymology

Washington was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States, and is the only U.S. state named after a president. To distinguish it from the U.S. capital, Washington is often referred to as Washington state as opposed to the more conventional “The State of Washington”, a redundancy that is unpopular with many of its citizens due to the perception that the qualifier relegates it to a lesser status among other states. Washingtonians (residents of Washington) and many residents of neighboring states and Canadians from southern British Columbia normally refer to the state simply as “Washington”, while usually referring to the nation's capital as “Washington, D.C.” or simply “D.C.” The area was originally called “Columbia” after the Columbia River. Ironically, the area was renamed Washington to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia.<ref name=“Longview History”>

</ref><ref name=“Cowlitz Timeline” />

Geography

File:South Eastern Washington State.tif

Washington is the north-western most state of the contiguous United States. Its northern border lies mostly along the 49th parallel, and then via marine boundaries through the Strait of Georgia, Haro Strait and Strait of Juan de Fuca, with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. Washington is bordered by Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part and the 46th parallel forming the eastern part of the southern boundary.

reflected in Reflection lake]]

]]

viewed from Adams Glacier Basin (High Camp)]] To the east, Washington borders Idaho, bounded mostly by the meridian running north from the confluence of the Snake River and Clearwater River (about 116°57' west), except for the southernmost section where the border follows the Snake River. To the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean.<ref>Washington State Constitution, Article XXIV Boundaries</ref> Washington was a Union territory during the American Civil War, although it never actually participated in the war.

Washington is part of a region known as the Pacific Northwest, a term which always includes Washington and Oregon and may or may not include Idaho, western Montana, northern California, and Alaska, depending on the user's intent.

The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state. From the Cascades westward, Western Washington has a mostly marine west coast climate, with mild temperatures and wet winters, autumns and springs, and relatively dry summers. The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains. From the north to the south these volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount St. Helens is currently the only Washington volcano that is actively erupting; however, all of them are considered active volcanoes. Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain in the state,<ref name=“usgs”>

</ref> is

south of the city of Seattle, from which it is prominently visible. The

Mt. Rainier is considered the most dangerous volcano in the continental U.S.,<ref>

</ref> due to its proximity to the Seattle metropolitan area and is similarly listed as a Decade Volcano. It is also covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the lower 48 states.<ref>

</ref>

Western Washington also is home of the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic Peninsula, which supports dense forests of conifers and areas of temperate rain forest. These deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States.<ref>

</ref>

In contrast, Eastern Washington, east of the Cascades, has a relatively dry climate with large areas of semiarid steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rainshadow of the Cascades; the Hanford reservation receives an average annual precipitation of

. Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, increasing as one goes east to

in Pullman.<ref>

</ref> The Okanogan Highlands and the mountainous Kettle River Range cover much of the northeastern quadrant of the state. The Palouse southeast region of Washington was grassland that has been mostly converted into farmland, and extends to the Blue Mountains. Other parts of eastern Washington are forested and mountainous.

Climate

Washington's climate varies greatly from west to east. An oceanic climate (also called “west coast marine climate”) predominates in western Washington, and a much drier semi-arid climate prevails east of the Cascade Range. Major factors determining Washington's climate include the large semi-permanent high pressure and low pressure systems of the north Pacific Ocean, the continental air masses of North America, and the Olympic and Cascade mountains. In the spring and summer, a high pressure anticyclone system dominates the north Pacific Ocean, causing air to spiral out in a clockwise fashion.

caused a large dust storm in arid parts of eastern Washington on October 4, 2009. Courtesy: NASA/GSFC, MODIS Rapid Response.<ref name=“nasa”>

</ref>]] For Washington this means prevailing winds from the northwest bringing relatively cool air and a predictably dry season. In the autumn and winter, a low pressure cyclone system takes over in the north Pacific Ocean, with air spiraling inward in a counter-clockwise fashion. This causes Washington's prevailing winds to come from the southwest, bringing relatively warm and moist air masses and a predictably wet season. The term Pineapple Express is used to describe the extreme form of this wet season pattern.<ref>

</ref>

Despite western Washington having a marine climate similar to those of many coastal cities of Europe, there are exceptions such as the “Big Snow” events of 1880, 1881, 1893 and 1916 and the “deep freeze” winters of 1883–84, 1915–16, 1949–50 and 1955–56, among others. During these events western Washington experienced up to

of snow, sub-zero (−18 °C) temperatures, three months with snow on the ground, and lakes and rivers frozen over for weeks.<ref>

</ref> Seattle's lowest officially recorded temperature is

set on January 31, 1950, but low-altitude areas approximately three hours away from Seattle have recorded lows as cold as

.<ref>

</ref>

In 2006, the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington published The Impacts of Climate change in Washington’s Economy, a preliminary assessment on the risks and opportunities presented given the possibility of a rise in global temperatures and their effects on Washington state.<ref>

</ref>

Rain shadow effects

Rainfall in Washington varies dramatically going from east to west. The western side of the Olympic Peninsula receives as much as

of precipitation annually, making it the wettest area of the 48 conterminous states and a temperate rainforest. Weeks or even months may pass without a clear day. The western slopes of the Cascade Range receive some of the heaviest annual snowfall (in some places more than

water equivalent) in the country. In the rain shadow area east of the Cascades, the annual precipitation is only

. Precipitation then increases again eastward toward the Rocky Mountains.

The Olympic mountains and Cascades compound this climatic pattern by causing orographic lift of the air masses blown inland from the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the windward side of the mountains receiving high levels of precipitation and the leeward side receiving low levels. This occurs most dramatically around the Olympic Mountains and the Cascade Range. In both cases the windward slopes facing southwest receive high precipitation and mild, cool temperatures. While the Puget Sound lowlands are known for clouds and rain in the winter, the western slopes of the Cascades receive larger amounts of precipitation, often falling as snow at higher elevations. (Mount Baker, near the state's northern border, is one of the snowiest places in the world: in 1999, it set the world record for snowfall in a single season:

.<ref>

</ref>

East of the Cascades, a large region experiences strong rain shadow effects. Semi-arid conditions occur in much of eastern Washington with the strongest rain shadow effects at the relatively low elevations of the central Columbia Plateau—especially the region just east of the Columbia River from about the Snake River to the Okanagan Highland. Thus instead of rain forests much of eastern Washington is covered with grassland and shrub-steppe.

Temperatures

The average annual temperature ranges from

on the Pacific coast to

in the northeast. The lowest temperature recorded in the state was

in Winthrop and Mazama. The highest recorded temperature in the state was

at Ice Harbor Dam. Both records were set east of the Cascades. Western Washington is known for its mild climate, considerable fog, frequent cloud cover and long-lasting drizzles in the winter, and warm, temperate summers. The Eastern region occasionally experiences extreme climate. Arctic cold fronts in the winter and heat waves in the summer are not uncommon. In the Eastern region, temperatures have reached as high as

in Marietta<ref>

</ref> and as low as

in Longview.<ref>

</ref>

Flora and fauna

Forests cover 52% of the state's land area, mostly west of the North Cascades. Approximately two-thirds of Washington's forested area is publicly owned, including 64% of federal land.<ref>

</ref> Other common trees and plants in the region are camassia, Douglas fir, hemlock, penstemon, ponderosa pine, western red cedar, and many species of ferns.<ref>

</ref> The state's various areas of wilderness offer sanctuary, with substantially large populations of shorebirds and marine mammals. The Pacific shore surrounding the San Juan Islands are heavily inhabited with killer, gray and humpback whales.<ref name=“encyclopedia” />

, also known as blacktail deer, graze at Deer Park in Olympic National Park]] Mammals endemic to the state include the bat, black bear, bobcat, cougar, coyote, deer, elk, gray wolf, moose, mountain beaver, muskrat, mustang horse, nutria, opossum, pocket gopher, raccoon, river otter, skunk, and tree squirrel.<ref>

</ref> Because of the wide range of geography, the State of Washington is home to several different ecoregions which allow for a varied range of bird species. This range includes raptors, shorebirds, woodland birds, grassland birds, ducks, and others.<ref>

</ref> There have also been a large number of species introduced to Washington, dating back to the early 1700s, including horses and burros.<ref>

</ref> The channel catfish, lamprey, and sturgeon are among the 400&nbsp;known freshwater fishes.<ref name=“species”>

</ref><ref>

</ref> Along with the Cascades frog, there are several forms of snakes that define the most prominent reptiles and amphibians.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> Coastal bays and islands are often inhabited by plentiful amounts of shellfish and whales. There are five species of salmon that ascend the Western Washington area, from streams to spawn.<ref name=“encyclopedia”>

</ref>

Washington has a variety of National Park Service units. Among these are the Alta Lake State Park, San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuge, as well as three national parks, the Olympic National Park, North Cascades National Park and Mount Rainier National Park.<ref>

</ref> The three national parks were established between 1899 and 1968. Almost 95% (876,517 acres, 354,714 hectares, 3,547.14 square kilometers) of Olympic National Park's area has been designated as wilderness under the National Wilderness Preservation System.<ref>

</ref> Additionally, there are 143 state parks and 9 national forests, run by the Washington State Park System and the United States Forest Service.<ref>

</ref> The Okanogan National Forest is the largest national forest located on the West Coast, encompassing

. It is managed together as the Okanogan–Wenatchee National Forest, encompassing a considerablely larger area of around

.<ref>

</ref>

History

, in northeastern Washington.]]

with Tacoma in foreground]]

Early history

The skeletal remains of Kennewick Man, one of the oldest and most complete human remains ever found in North America, were discovered in Washington.<ref>Kennewick Man Skeletal Find May Revolutionalize Continent's History, Science Daily, April 2006.</ref> Prior to the arrival of explorers from Europe, the region had many established tribes of Native Americans, notable for their totem poles and their ornately carved canoes and masks. Prominent among their industries were salmon fishing and, notably among the Makah, whale hunting. The peoples of the Interior had a very different subsistence-based culture based on hunting, food-gathering and some forms of agriculture, as well as a dependency on salmon from the Columbia and its tributaries. The smallpox epidemic of the 1770s devastated the Native American population.<ref>

</ref>

European exploration

The first recorded European landing on the Washington coast was by Spanish Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in 1775, on board the Santiago, part of a two-ship flotilla with the Sonora. He claimed all the coastal lands up to Prince William Sound for Spain as part of their claimed rights under the Treaty of Tordesillas, which they maintained made the Pacific a “Spanish lake” and all its shores part of the Spanish Empire.

In 1778, British explorer Captain James Cook sighted Cape Flattery, at the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, but Cook did not realize the strait existed. It was not discovered until Charles William Barkley, captain of the Imperial Eagle, sighted it in 1787. The straits were further explored by Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper in 1790 and Francisco de Eliza in 1791, and British explorer George Vancouver in 1792.

Settlement

The British-Spanish Nootka Convention of 1790 ended Spanish claims of exclusivity and opened the Northwest Coast to explorers and traders from other nations, most notably Britain and Russia as well as the fledgling United States. American captain Robert Gray (for whom Grays Harbor County is named) then discovered the mouth of the Columbia River. He named the river after his ship, the ''Columbia''. Beginning in 1792, Gray established trade in sea otter pelts. The Lewis and Clark Expedition entered the state on October 10, 1805.

Explorer David Thompson, on his voyage down the Columbia River camped at the junction with the Snake River on July 9, 1811, and erected a pole and a notice claiming the country for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a trading post at the site.

Britain and the United States agreed to what has since been described as “joint occupancy” of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean as part of the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, which established the 49th Parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. Resolution of the territorial and treaty issues, west to the Pacific, were deferred until a later time. Spain, in 1819, ceded their rights north of the 42nd Parallel to the United States, although these rights did not include possession.

in 1841]] Negotiations with Great Britain over the next few decades failed to settle upon a compromise boundary and the Oregon boundary dispute was highly contested between Britain and the United States. Disputed joint-occupancy by Britain and the U.S. lasted for several decades. With American settlers pouring into Oregon Country, Hudson's Bay Company, which had previously discouraged settlement because it conflicted with the fur trade, reversed its position in an attempt to maintain British control of the Columbia District.

Fur trapper James Sinclair, on orders from Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, led some 200 settlers from the Red River Colony west in 1841 to settle on Hudson Bay Company farms near Fort Vancouver. The party crossed the Rockies into the Columbia Valley, near present-day Radium Hot Springs, British Columbia, then traveled south-west down the Kootenai River and Columbia River. Despite such efforts, Britain eventually ceded all claims to land south of the 49th parallel to the United States in the Oregon Treaty on June 15, 1846.

In 1836, a group of missionaries including Marcus Whitman established several missions and Whitman’s own settlement Waiilatpu, in what is now southeastern Washington state, near present day Walla Walla County, in territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez Perce Indian tribes. Whitman’s settlement would in 1843 help the Oregon Trail, the overland emigration route to the west, get established for thousands of emigrants in following decades. Marcus provided medical care for the Native Americans, but when Indian patients – lacking immunity to new, ‘European’ diseases – died in striking numbers, while at the same time many white patients recovered, they held ‘medicine man’ Marcus Whitman personally responsible, and murdered Whitman and twelve other white settlers in the Whitman massacre in 1847. This event triggered the Cayuse War between settlers and Indians.

Fort Nisqually, a farm and trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company and the first European settlement in the Puget Sound area, was founded in 1833. Black pioneer George Washington Bush and his caucasian wife, Isabella James Bush, from Missouri and Tennessee, respectively, led four white families into the territory and founded New Market, now Tumwater, in 1846. They settled in Washington to avoid Oregon's discriminatory settlement laws.<ref>

</ref> After them, many more settlers, migrating overland along the Oregon trail, wandered north to settle in the Puget Sound area.

Statehood

The growing populace of Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River formally requested a new territory, which was granted by the U.S. government in 1853.<ref name=“Cowlitz Timeline”>

</ref> The boundary of Washington Territory initially extended farther east than the present state's, including what is now the Idaho Panhandle and parts of western Montana, and picked up more land to the southeast that was left behind when Oregon was admitted as a state. The creation of Idaho Territory in 1863 established the final eastern border. Washington became the 42nd state in the United States on November 11, 1889.<ref>

</ref>

Early prominent industries in the state included agriculture and lumber. In eastern Washington, the Yakima River Valley became known for its apple orchards, while the growth of wheat using dry-farming techniques became particularly productive. Heavy rainfall to the west of the Cascade Range produced dense forests, and the ports along Puget Sound prospered from the manufacturing and shipping of lumber products, particularly the Douglas-fir. Other industries that developed in the state included fishing, salmon canning and mining.

Industrial Era

Es under construction c. 1942]] For a long period, Tacoma was noted for its large smelters where gold, silver, copper and lead ores were treated. Seattle was the primary port for trade with Alaska and the rest of the country, and for a time it possessed a large shipbuilding industry. The region around eastern Puget Sound developed heavy industry during the period including World War I and World War II, and the Boeing company became an established icon in the area.

During the Great Depression, a series of hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia river as part of a project to increase the production of electricity. This culminated in 1941 with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam, the largest concrete structure in the United States.

During World War II, the state became a focus for war industries. While the Boeing Company produced many of the nation's heavy bombers, ports in Seattle, Bremerton, Vancouver, and Tacoma were available for the manufacture of warships. Seattle was the point of departure for many soldiers in the Pacific, a number of which were quartered at Golden Gardens Park. In eastern Washington, the Hanford Works atomic energy plant was opened in 1943 and played a major role in the construction of the nation's atomic bombs.

On May 18, 1980, following a period of heavy tremors and eruptions, the northeast face of Mount St. Helens exploded outward, destroying a large part of the top of the volcano. This eruption flattened the forests, killed 57 people, flooded the Columbia River and its tributaries with ash and mud, and blanketed large parts of Washington and other surrounding states in ash, making day look like night.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

Demographics

</ref><ref>Washington was not yet a legally recognized territory in 1850. This figure is derived from areas that later became Washington Territory.

</ref>

}}

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Washington was 6,971,406 on July 1, 2013, a 3.7% increase since the 2010 United States Census.<ref name=“PopEstUS”>

</ref>

According to the U.S. Census, as of 2010, Washington had an estimated population of 6,724,540, which was an increase of 830,419 or 14.1 percent from the year 2000.<ref name=“WA QuickFacts” /> This includes a natural increase of 380,400 people, and an increase from net migration of 450,019 people into the state. Washington ranks first in the Pacific Northwest region in terms of population, followed by Oregon, and Idaho. There has historically been a lot of German American, Irish American and English American immigration to what is now the state of Washington. In 1980, the Census Bureau reported Washington's population as 90% non-Hispanic white.<ref>

</ref>

As of 2011, 44.3% of Washington's population younger than age 1 were minorities.<ref>

</ref>

The center of population of Washington in the year 2000 was located in an unpopulated part of the Cascade Mountains in rural eastern King County, southeast of North Bend, northeast of Enumclaw and west of Snoqualmie Pass.<ref>

</ref>

As of the Census 2010, the Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue Metropolitan Area's population was 3,439,809, approximately half the state's total population.<ref>

</ref>

6.7 percent of Washington's population was reported as under five years of age, 25.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 11.2 percent were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.2 percent of the population.

The largest ancestry groups (which the Census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are:<ref>

</ref>

  • 20.7% German
  • 12.6% Irish
  • 12.3% English
  • 8.2% Hispanic
  • 6.2% Norwegian
  • 3.9% French
  • 3.9% American
  • 3.8% Swedish
  • 3.6% Italian
  • 3.3% Scottish
  • 2.5% Scotch Irish
  • 2.5% Dutch
  • 1.9% Polish
  • 1.8-2.0% Russian

There are evident Russian American communities of Western Washington and some Russian immigration into the Seattle area since the fall of the Soviet Union in the 1990s.<ref>

</ref> There's a long history of Russian Americans in the state. In fact, Russianseattle.com <ref>

</ref> (in Russian) and citydata discussed the issue of Russian Americans in Seattle and its suburbs.<ref>

</ref>

Racial demographics

According to the 2010 United States census, the racial and ethnic composition of Washington was the following:<ref name=“WA QuickFacts”>

</ref><ref>http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_SF1_QTP10&prodType=table</ref>

There is a sizable population with Hispanic or Latino heritage at 11.2%.

Washington Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990<ref>Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States</ref> 2000<ref>Population of Washington: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts</ref> 2010<ref>2010 Census Data</ref>
White 88.5% 81.8% 77.3%
Asian 4.3% 5.5% 7.2%
Black 3.1% 3.2% 3.6%
Native 1.7% 1.6% 1.5%
Native Hawaiian and <br>other Pacific Islander - 0.4% 0.6%
Other race 2.4% 3.9% 5.2%
Two or more races - 3.6% 4.7%

The Hispanic/Latino population can belong to any of the racial groups and consists of people of mainly Mexican (8.9%), Spanish (0.4%), Cuban (0.4%), Salvadoran (0.2%), Guatemalan (0.1%), Colombian (0.1%) heritage. According to 2010 United States Census estimates, 77% of Washingtonians are white or European American, although this is ambiguous as it includes not only caucasians including those who are born in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the former USSR, but people born in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (the number of Arab American nationalities risen dramatically in the 1990s and 2000s).<ref>

</ref>

Areas of concentration

While the population of African Americans in the Pacific Northwest is scarce overall, they mostly concentrate in South End and Central District areas of Seattle, and in inner Tacoma.<ref>Cassandra Tate, Mandatory Busing in Seattle: Memories of a Bumpy Ride, History Link, August 7, 2002. Accessed online October 2, 2008.</ref> The black community of Seattle developed after World War II when wartime industries and the U.S. Armed Forces employed and recruited tens of thousands of African Americans from the Southeastern United States. They left a high influence in west coast rock music and R&B and soul in the 1960s, including Seattle native Jimi Hendrix, a pioneer in hard rock, who was of African American and Cherokee Indian descent.

American Indians lived on Indian reservations or jurisdictory lands such as the Colville Indian Reservation, Makah, Muckleshoot Indian Reservation, Quinault (tribe), Salish people, Spokane Indian Reservation and Yakama Indian Reservation. The westernmost and Pacific coasts have primarily American Indian communities, such as the Chinook, Lummi and Salish. But Urban Indian communities formed by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs relocation programs in Seattle since the end of World War II brought a variety of Native American cultures to this diverse metropolis. The city was actually named for Chief Seattle when European Americans settled the isthmus in the 1880s.

, Seattle, January 2011.]] Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are mostly concentrated in the Seattle−Tacoma metropolitan area. Seattle, Bellevue, and Redmond, which are all located within King County, have sizable Chinese communities (including Taiwanese), as well as significant Indian and Japanese communities that are present there. The Chinatown-International District in Seattle has a historical Chinese population dating back to the 1850s, who mainly emigrated from Guangdong province in southern China, and is currently home to a diverse East and Southeast Asian community. Koreans are heavily concentrated in the suburban cities of Federal Way and Auburn. Tacoma is home to thousands of Cambodians, and has one of the largest Cambodian American communities in the United States, along with Long Beach, California and Lowell, Massachusetts.<ref>

</ref> The Vietnamese and Filipino populations of Washington are mostly concentrated within the Seattle metropolitan area.<ref>

</ref> Washington state has the highest percentage of Pacific Islander people of any state in the mainland U.S. aside from Utah; the Seattle-Tacoma area is home to over 15,000 people of Samoan ancestry, who mainly reside in southeast Seattle, Tacoma, Federal Way, and in SeaTac.<ref name=“pugetsoundsamoan”>

</ref><ref name=“factfinder2.census.gov”>Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010 more information 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File. Factfinder2census.gov. (2010). Retrieved on December 30, 2011.</ref><ref name=“seattletimes930”>

</ref>

The most numerous (ethnic not racial group) are Latinos at 11%, as Mexican Americans formed a large ethnic group in the Chehalis Valley, farming areas of Yakima Valley and Eastern Washington. In the late 20th century, large-scale Mexican immigration and other Latinos settled in the southern suburbs of Seattle with limited concentrations in King, Pierce and Snohomish Counties during the region's real estate construction booms in the 1980s and 1990s.

Additionally, Washington has a large Ethiopian community, with many Eritrean residents as well.<ref name=“Ember”>

</ref> Over 30,000 Somali immigrants also reside in the Seattle area.<ref name=“Lsts”>

</ref>

Largest cities

.]]

.]]

.]]

.]] The largest cities in Washington according to 2011 state estimate.<ref>

</ref>

Rank City Population Metropolitan Area
1 Seattle 634,525 Seattle
2 Spokane 210,103 Spokane
3 Tacoma 202,010 Seattle
4 Vancouver 165,489 Portland, Oregon
5 Bellevue 126,439 Seattle
6 Kent 122,999 Seattle
7 Everett 104,655 Seattle
8 Renton 95,448 Seattle
9 Yakima 93,101 Yakima
10 Federal Way 91,933 Seattle

Languages

Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Washington
Language Percentage of population<br /><small>(as of 2010)</small><ref name=“MLA Data” />
Spanish 7.79%
Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin) 1.19%
Vietnamese 0.94%
Tagalog 0.84%
Korean 0.83%
Russian 0.80%
German 0.55%
Japanese 0.39%
French 0.33%
Ukrainian 0.27%

As of 2010, 82.51% (5,060,313) of Washington residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.79% (477,566) spoke Spanish, 1.19% (72,552) Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin), 0.94% (57,895) Vietnamese, 0.84% (51,301) Tagalog, 0.83% (50,757) Korean, 0.80% (49,282) Russian, and German was spoken as a main language by 0.55% (33,744) of the population over the age of five. In total, 17.49% (1,073,002) of Washington's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.<ref name=“MLA Data”>

</ref>

Religion

According to the American Religious Identification Survey 2001 (ARIS), 42% of Washington residents stated that someone in their household is affiliated with a church, synagogue or mosque.<ref name=Grossman>

</ref> Major religious affiliations of the people of Washington are:<ref>

</ref>

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 784,332; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 267,267; and the Assemblies of God with 125,005.<ref name=“www.thearda.com”>

</ref>

Aquarian Tabernacle Church is the largest Wiccan church in the country.<ref>Wicca more prevalent in the Pacific Northwest than most realize retrieved October 16, 2012</ref>

As with many other Western states, the percentage of Washington's population identifying themselves as “non-religious” is higher than the national average. The percentage of non-religious people in Washington is the highest of any state other than Colorado.<ref>

</ref>

Economy

Corporation headquarters in Redmond, an Eastside suburb of Seattle.]] The 2010 total gross state product for Washington was $351.5 billion, placing it 14th in the nation.<ref>

</ref> The per capita personal income in 2009 was $52,403, 10th in the nation. Significant business within the state include the design and manufacture of aircraft (Boeing), automotive (Paccar), computer software development (Microsoft, Bungie, Amazon.com, Nintendo of America, Facebook, Valve Corporation, ArenaNet), telecom (T-Mobile USA), electronics, biotechnology, aluminum production, lumber and wood products (Weyerhaeuser), mining, beverages (Starbucks, Jones Soda), real estate (John L. Scott), retail (Nordstrom, Eddie Bauer, Car Toys, Costco, R.E.I.), and tourism (Alaska Airlines, Expedia, Inc.). The state has significant amounts of hydroelectric power generation.

Significant amounts of trade with Asia pass through the ports of the Puget Sound. (See list of United States companies by state.) A Fortune magazine survey of the top 20 Most Admired Companies in the US has 4 Washington based companies in it, Amazon.com, Starbucks, Microsoft, and Costco.<ref>

</ref>

With the passage of Initiative 1183, the Washington State Liquor Control Board (WSLCB) ended its monopoly of all state liquor store and liquor distribution operations on June 1, 2012.

Among its resident billionaires, Washington boasts Bill Gates, chairman and former CEO of Microsoft, who, with a net worth of $67 billion, was ranked the second wealthiest man in the world as of February 2013, according to Forbes magazine.<ref>://www.forbes.com/pictures/mel45ghdi/bill-gates-25/ — Forbes (February 2013). Retrieved June 3, 2013.</ref> Other Washington state billionaires include Paul Allen (Microsoft), Steve Ballmer (Microsoft), Jeff Bezos (Amazon), Craig McCaw (McCaw Cellular Communications), James Jannard (Oakley), Howard Schultz (Starbucks), and Charles Simonyi (Microsoft).<ref>://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2003270332_forbes22.html Seattle Times September 22, 2006 “No news here … Gates still richest”</ref>

As of April 2013, the state's unemployment rate is 7.0 percent.<ref>://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/labor/state-unemployment-update.aspx; http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/labor/state-unemployment-update.aspx</ref>

Taxes

The state of Washington is one of only seven states that does not levy a personal income tax. The state also does not collect a corporate income tax or franchise tax. However, Washington businesses are responsible for various other state levies, including the business and occupation tax (B & O), a gross receipts tax which charges varying rates for different types of businesses.

Headquarters, Seattle.]] Washington's state base sales tax is 6.5 percent which is combined with a local rate. As of April 2010, the rate is 9.5 percent in Seattle and other cities.<ref>

</ref> These taxes apply to services as well as products.<ref>

</ref> Most foods are exempt from sales tax; however, prepared foods, dietary supplements and soft drinks remain taxable. The combined state and local retail sales tax rates increase the taxes paid by consumers, depending on the variable local sales tax rates, generally between 8 and 9 percent.<ref>http://dor.wa.gov/content/home/TaxTopics/FederalDeductionLSTaxTable.aspx</ref>

An excise tax applies to certain select products such as gasoline, cigarettes, and alcoholic beverages. Property tax was the first tax levied in the state of Washington and its collection accounts for about 30 percent of Washington's total state and local revenue. It continues to be the most important revenue source for public schools, fire protection, libraries, parks and recreation, and other special purpose districts.

All real property and personal property is subject to tax unless specifically exempted by law. Personal property also is taxed, although most personal property owned by individuals is exempt. Personal property tax applies to personal property used when conducting business or to other personal property not exempt by law. All property taxes are paid to the county treasurer's office where the property is located. Washington does not impose a tax on intangible assets such as bank accounts, stocks or bonds. Neither does the state assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Washington does not collect inheritance taxes; however, the estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws, and therefore the state imposes its own estate tax.

Washington's tax policy differs significantly from neighboring Oregon's, which levies no sales tax but a very high income tax. This leads to border economic anomalies in the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area. Additional border economies exist with neighboring Canada and Idaho.

Agriculture

, a small community of pickers' cabins and apple orchards.]] Washington is a leading agricultural state. (The following figures are from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and the USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Washington Field Office.) For 2003, the total value of Washington's agricultural products was $5.79 billion, the 11th highest in the country. The total value of its crops was $3.8 billion, the 7th highest. The total value of its livestock and specialty products was $1.5 billion, the 26th highest.

In 2004, Washington ranked first in the nation in production of red raspberries (90.0 percent of total U.S. production), wrinkled seed peas (80.6 percent), hops (75.0 percent), spearmint oil (73.6 percent), apples (58.1 percent), sweet cherries (47.3 percent), pears (42.6 percent), peppermint oil (40.3 percent), Concord grapes (39.3 percent), carrots for processing (36.8 percent), and Niagara grapes (31.6 percent). Washington also ranked second in the nation in production of lentils, fall potatoes, dry edible peas, apricots, grapes (all varieties taken together), asparagus (over a third of the nation's production), sweet corn for processing, and green peas for processing; third in tart cherries, prunes and plums, and dry summer onions; fourth in barley and trout; and fifth in wheat, cranberries, and strawberries.

The apple industry is of particular importance to Washington. Because of the favorable climate of dry, warm summers and cold winters of central Washington, the state has led the U.S. in apple production since the 1920s.<ref>

</ref> Two areas account for the vast majority of the state's apple crop: the Wenatchee–Okanogan region (comprising Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas, and Grant counties), and the Yakima region (comprising Yakima, Benton and Kittitas counties).<ref>

</ref>

Wine

Washington ranks second in the United States in the production of wine, behind only California.<ref name=“Wine pg 798-800”>A. Domine (ed) Wine pg 798–800 Ullmann Publishing 2008 ISBN 978-3-8331-4611-4</ref> By 2006, the state had over

of vineyards, a harvest of

of grapes, and exports going to over 40 countries around the world from the 600 wineries located in the state. While there are some viticultural activities in the cooler, wetter western half of the state, the majority (99%) of wine grape production takes place in the desert-like eastern half.<ref name=“Oxford pg 761-762”>J. Robinson (ed) The Oxford Companion to Wine Third Edition pg −761-762 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0-19-860990-6</ref> The rain shadow of the Cascade Range leaves the Columbia River Basin with around

of annual rain fall, making irrigation and water rights of paramount interest to the Washington wine industry. Viticulture in the state is also influenced by long sunlight hours (on average, two more hours a day than in California during the growing season) and consistent temperatures.<ref name=“Fallis pg 50”>C. Fallis, editor The Encyclopedic Atlas of Wine pg 50 Global Book Publishing 2006 ISBN 1-74048-050-3</ref>

Transportation

system in the United States.]]

.]] Washington has a system of state highways, called State Routes, as well as an extensive ferry system which is the largest in the nation<ref>

</ref> and the third largest in the world. There are 140 public airfields in Washington, including 16 state airports owned by the Washington State Department of Transportation. Boeing Field in Seattle is one of the busiest primary non-hub airports in the US. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SeaTac) is the other major airport of greater Seattle.<ref>

</ref> The unique geography of Washington creates exceptional transportation challenges.

There are extensive waterways in the midst of Washington's largest cites, including Seattle, Bellevue, Tacoma and Olympia. The state highways incorporate an extensive network of bridges and the largest ferry system in the United States to serve transportation needs in the Puget Sound area. Washington's marine highway constitutes a fleet of twenty-eight ferries that navigate Puget Sound and its inland waterways to 20 different ports of call, completing close to 147,000 sailings each year. Washington is home to four of the five longest floating bridges in the world: the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge over Lake Washington, and the Hood Canal Bridge which connects the Olympic Peninsula and Kitsap Peninsula.

The Cascade Mountain Range also provides unique transportation challenges. Washington operates and maintains roads over seven major mountain passes and eight minor passes. During winter months some of these passes are plowed, sanded, and kept safe with avalanche control. Not all are able to stay open through the winter. The North Cascades Highway, State Route 20, closes every year. This is because the extraordinary amount of snowfall and frequency of avalanches in the area of Washington Pass make it unsafe in the winter months.

Washington is crossed by a number of freight railroads, and Amtrak's passenger Cascade route between Eugene, OR and Vancouver, BC is the eighth busiest Amtrak service in the USA and one of the few profitable routes in the system. Public transportation has generally lagged, although the much-delayed link light rail system in the greater Seattle region opened its first line in 2002. Residents of Vancouver have resisted proposals to extend Portland's mass transit system into Washington.

Environment

In 2007, Washington became the first state in the nation to target all forms of highly toxic brominated flame retardants known as PBDEs for elimination from the many common household products in which they are used. A 2004 study of 40 mothers from Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Montana found PBDEs in the breast milk of every woman tested.

Three recent studies by the Washington Department of Ecology showed that toxic chemicals banned decades ago continue to linger in the environment and concentrate in the food chain. In one of the studies, state government scientists found unacceptable levels of toxic substances in 93 samples of freshwater fish collected from 45 sites. The toxic substances included PCBs; dioxins, two chlorinated pesticides, DDE and dieldrin, and PBDEs. As a result of the study, the department will investigate the sources of PCBs in the Wenatchee River, where unhealthy levels of PCBs were found in mountain whitefish. Based on the 2007 information and a previous 2004 Ecology study, the Washington Department of Health is advising the public not to eat mountain whitefish from the Wenatchee River from Leavenworth downstream to where the river joins the Columbia, due to unhealthy levels of PCBs. Study results also indicated high levels of contaminants in fish tissue that scientists collected from Lake Washington and the Spokane River, where fish consumption advisories are already in effect.<ref>

</ref>

On March 27, 2006, Governor Christine Gregoire signed into law the recently approved House Bill 2322. This bill would limit phosphorus content in dishwashing detergents statewide to 0.5 percent over the next six years. Though the ban would be effective statewide in 2010, it would take place in Whatcom County, Spokane County, and Clark County in 2008.<ref>http://www.landscouncil.org/documents/Newsletters/3%20Spring%2006.pdf</ref> A recent discovery had linked high contents of phosphorus in water to a boom in algae population. An invasive amount of algae in bodies of water would eventually lead to a variety of excess ecological and technological issues.<ref>

</ref>

Governance

building in Olympia.]] The bicameral Washington State Legislature is the state's legislative branch. The state legislature is composed of a lower House of Representatives and an upper State Senate. The state is divided into 49 legislative districts of equal population, each of which elects two representatives and one senator. Representatives serve two-year terms, whilst senators serve for four years. There are no term limits. As of the 2013 session, the Democratic Party holds the majority in the House, while the Republicans have de-facto but not de-jure control of the state Senate.

Washington's executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. The current governor is Jay Inslee, a Democrat who has served since 2013. The previous governor was Christine Gregoire.

The Washington Supreme Court is the highest court in the state. Nine justices serve on the bench and are elected statewide.

U.S. Congress

The two U.S. Senators from Washington are Patty Murray (D) and Maria Cantwell (D).

Washington's ten representatives in the United States House of Representatives (''see map of districts'') are Suzan DelBene (D-1), Richard Ray (Rick) Larsen (D-2), Jaime Herrera (R-3), Doc Hastings (R-4), Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-5), Derek Kilmer (D-6), Jim McDermott (D-7), Dave Reichert (R-8), Adam Smith (D-9), and Dennis Heck (D-10). Due to Congressional redistricting as a result of the 2010 Census, Washington gained one seat in the United States House of Representatives. With the extra seat, Washington also gained one electoral vote.

State elected officials

Executive

Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

2012 41.29% 1,290,670

| 56.16%

1,755,396
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

2008 40.48% 1,229,216

| 57.65%

1,750,848
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

2004 45.59% 1,304,893

| 52.82%

1,510,201
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

2000 44.59% 1,108,864

| 50.21%

1,247,652
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

1996 37.32% 840,712

| 49.81%

1,123,323
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

1992 31.99% 731,234

| 43.41%

993,037
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

1988 47.97% 903,835

| 50.03%

933,516
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

1984

| 55.82%

1,051,670 42.86% 807,352
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

1980

| 49.66%

865,244 37.32% 650,193
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

1976

| 50.00%

777,732 46.11% 717,323
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

1972

| 56.92%

837,135 38.64% 568,334
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

1968 45.12% 616,037

| 47.23%

558,510
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

1964 37.37% 470,366

| 61.97%

779,881
style=“width: 0.25em; background-color:

” |

1960

| 50.68%

629,273 48.27% 599,298

The state is typically thought of as politically divided by the Cascade Mountains, with Western Washington being liberal (particularly the

) and Eastern Washington being conservative. Washington has voted for the Democratic presidential nominee in every election since 1988.

Due to Western Washington's large population, Democrats usually fare better statewide. The Seattle metropolitan combined statistical area, home to almost two-thirds of Washington's population, generally delivers stronger Democratic margins than most other parts of Western Washington. This is especially true of King County, home to Seattle itself and almost a third of the state's population.

Washington was considered a key swing state in 1968, and it was the only western state to give its electoral votes to Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey over his Republican opponent Richard Nixon. Washington was considered a part of the 1994 Republican Revolution, and had the biggest pickup in the house for Republicans, who picked up seven of Washington's nine House seats.<ref>

</ref> However, this dominance did not last for long as Democrats picked up one seat in the 1996 election<ref>

</ref> and two more in 1998, giving the Democrats a 5–4 majority.<ref>

</ref>

The two current United States Senators from Washington are Patty Murray and Maria Cantwell, both Democrats. The governorship is currently held by Democrat Jay Inslee, who was elected to his first term in the 2012 gubernatorial election. Both houses of the Washington State Legislature (the Washington Senate and the Washington House of Representatives) are under a de-jure Democratic majority, though the state senate is currently under de-facto Republican control, due to two Democrats joining Republicans to form a Majority Coalition Caucus.

Passed Bills

Washington is one of three states to have legalized assisted suicide. In 2008 voted on by initiative the Washington Death with Dignity Act passed and became law.

In November 2009, Washington state voters approved full domestic partnerships via Referendum 71, marking the first time voters in any state expanded recognition of same-sex relationships at the ballot box.

Three years later, in November 2012, same-sex marriage was affirmed via Referendum 74, making Washington one of only three states to have approved same-sex marriage by popular vote.

Also In November 2012, Washington state became one of just two states to pass by initiative the legal sale and possession of cannabis for both medical and non-medical use with Initiative 502. The law took effect in December 2012. Although marijuana is still illegal under U.S. Federal law, persons 21 and older in Washington state can possess up to one ounce of marijuana, 16 ounces of marijuana-infused product in solid form, 72 ounces of marijuana-infused product in liquid form, or any combination of all three, and to legally consume marijuana and marijuana-infused products.<ref>

</ref> Some 334 legal recreational marijuana retail outlets are projected to open by June 2014.

Currently, Washington state is the only state in the United States where assisted suicide, same-sex marriage, and recreational cannabis use are all legal.

Education

Elementary and secondary

As of the 2008–2009 school year, 1,040,750 students were enrolled in elementary and secondary schools in Washington, with 59,562 teachers employed to educate them.<ref>Washington State Report Card — Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Retrieved June 10, 2009.</ref> As of August 2009, there were 295 school districts in the state, serviced by nine Educational Service Districts.<ref>Districts and Schools — Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Retrieved June 10, 2009.</ref> Washington School Information Processing Cooperative (a non-profit, opt-in, State agency) provides information management systems for fiscal & human resources and student data. Elementary and secondary schools are under the jurisdiction of the Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), led by State School Superintendent Randy Dorn.<ref>About Us — Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Retrieved June 10, 2009.</ref>

High school juniors and seniors in Washington have the option of utilizing the state's Running Start program. Initiated by the state legislature in 1990, the program allows students to attend institutions of higher education at public expense, simultaneously earning high school and college credit.<ref>Running Start — Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Retrieved June 10, 2009.</ref>

The state also has several public arts focused high schools including Tacoma School of the Arts, Vancouver school of Arts and Academics, and The Center School. There are also three Science and Math based high schools one in the Tri-Cities, Washington, known as Delta, one in Tacoma, Washington, known as SAMI, and another in Seattle known as Raisbeck Aviation High School.

Higher education

There are more than 40 institutions of higher education in Washington. The state has major research universities, religious schools, and private career colleges. Public universities and colleges include the University of Washington, Washington State University, Western Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Central Washington University, and The Evergreen State College.

Healthcare in Washington

Professional sports

Club Sport League City & Stadium
Seattle Seahawks Football National Football League; NFC Seattle, CenturyLink Field
Seattle Mariners Baseball Major League Baseball; AL Seattle, Safeco Field
Seattle Sounders FC Soccer Major League Soccer Seattle, CenturyLink Field
Seattle Reign FC Soccer National Women's Soccer League Tukwila, Starfire Sports Complex
Spokane Shock Arena Football Arena Football League Spokane, Spokane Arena
Wenatchee Valley Venom Indoor Football American Indoor Football Association Wenatchee, Town Toyota Center
Seattle Storm Basketball Women's National Basketball Association Seattle, KeyArena
Spokane Spiders Soccer Premier Development League (Northwest Division) Spokane, Joe Albi Stadium
Seattle Sounders Women Soccer United Soccer Leagues; W-League Tukwila, Starfire Sports Complex
Bellingham Slam Basketball American Basketball Association Bellingham, Whatcom Community College
Wenatchee Wild Ice Hockey North American Hockey League Wenatchee, Town Toyota Center
Everett Silvertips Ice Hockey Western Hockey League Everett, Comcast Arena
Spokane Chiefs Ice Hockey Western Hockey League Spokane, Spokane Arena
Seattle Thunderbirds Ice Hockey Western Hockey League Kent, ShoWare Center
Tri-City Americans Ice Hockey Western Hockey League Kennewick, Toyota Center
Tri-Cities Fever Indoor Football Indoor Football League Kennewick, Toyota Center
Kent Predators Indoor Football Indoor Football League Kent, ShoWare Center
Everett Raptors Indoor Football Indoor Football League Everett, Comcast Arena
Tri-City Dust Devils Baseball Northwest League; A Pasco, Gesa Stadium
Tacoma Rainiers Baseball Pacific Coast League; AAA Tacoma, Cheney Stadium
Seattle-Tacoma Cobras Football Professional Developmental Football League ADC Tacoma, Federal Way Memorial Stadium
Spokane Indians Baseball Northwest League; A Spokane, Avista Stadium
Everett AquaSox Baseball Northwest League; A Everett, Everett Memorial Stadium
Yakima Bears Baseball Northwest League; A Yakima, Yakima County Stadium
Old Puget Sound Beach RFC Rugby Rugby Super League Seattle, various venues
Washington Stealth Lacrosse National Lacrosse League Everett, Comcast Arena
Seattle Mist Lingerie Football Lingerie Football League Kent, ShoWare Center

Symbols, honors, and names

Four ships of the United States Navy, including two battleships, have been named USS ''Washington'' in honor of the state. Previous ships had held that name in honor of George Washington.

The Evergreen State

The state's nickname “Evergreen” was proposed in 1890 by Charles T. Conover of Seattle, Washington. The name proved popular as the forests were full of evergreen trees and the abundance of rain keeps the shrubbery and grasses green throughout the year.<ref>Jollata, Pat, “Naming Clark County”. Vancouver Historical Society. Vancouver, WA. 1993. p. 17</ref> Although that nickname is widely used by the state, appearing on vehicle license plates for instance, it has not been officially adopted.<ref name=“State Symbols”>

</ref> The publicly funded Evergreen State College in Olympia also takes its name from this nickname.

State symbols

The state song is “Washington, My Home,” the state bird is the American Goldfinch, the state fruit is the apple, and the state vegetable is the Walla Walla sweet onion.<ref>Senate passes measure designating Walla Walla onion state veggie. Komo 4 Television. April 5, 2007. Retrieved on April 5, 2007.</ref> The state dance, adopted in 1979, is the square dance. The state tree is the Western Hemlock. The state flower is the Coast Rhododendron. The state fish is the steelhead. The state folk song is “Roll On, Columbia, Roll On” by Woody Guthrie. The unofficial, but popularly accepted, state rock song is Louie Louie.<ref>

</ref> The state grass is bluebunch wheatgrass. The state insect is the Green Darner Dragonfly. The state gem is petrified wood. The state fossil is the Columbian Mammoth. The state marine mammal is the orca.<ref name=“State Symbols” /> The state land mammal is the Olympic Marmot. The state seal (featured in the state flag as well) was inspired by the unfinished portrait by Gilbert Stuart.<ref>History of the State Seal. Washington Secretary of State. Retrieved on April 5, 2007</ref>

See also

Notes

References

Further reading

External links

<br>

| Northeast =
| West = Pacific Ocean
| Centre = ''Washington'': [[Outline of Washington|Outline]] • [[Index of Washington-related articles|Index]]
| East = {{flag|Idaho}}
| Southwest =
| South = {{flag|Oregon}}
| Southeast =
}}

Pacific Northwest States and territories established in 1889 States of the United States Washington (state) West Coast of the United States

washington_state.txt · Last modified: 2019/12/05 08:25 (external edit)