User Tools

Site Tools


Sidebar

Tell your friends about https://PrepperPatriot.com

There are many reasons to “Vote with Your Feet” and move from corrupt, statist, liberal-Democrat, high-crime Nanny States to a low-population-density, extremely low-crime, limited government, libertarian, Constitution-loving, Pro-Second-Amendment, Patriotic, moral-conservative, God-fearing, safe-haven refuge in the American Redoubt of Idaho - Montana - Wyoming - Eastern Oregon - Eastern Washington - Northern Utah


Vote with your feet by moving (http://WalkingToFreedom.com) to the libertarian safe refuge of the “American Redoubt” in Idaho - Montana - Wyoming - Eastern Oregon - Eastern Washington - Northern Utah or the Texas Redoubt or the Tennessee Cumberland Redoubt (http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-of-the-east) for more Bill of Rights freedom, especially Second Amendment gun rights — see

https://survivalblog.com/retreatareas

for state rankings,

https://www.SurvivalRetreatConsulting.com,

http://www.RevRealty.us,

https://www.SurvivalRealty.com

RadioFreeRedoubt.com podcast,

CharlesCarrollSociety.com podcast by a conservative black Catholic Redoubter.

Sadly, the beautiful state of California is now a lost cause politically. But still keep fighting to restore her greatness.

NRA Life Member; also member of http://GunOwners.org of America, https://NRAila.org, Second Amendment Foundation https://SAF.org, https://CalGunsFoundation.org, https://CRPA.org, https://GunOwnersCA.com, https://NSSF.org, https://JPFO.org, https://Permies.com, https://thesurvivalpodcast.com Member Support Brigade, the Wolf Pack at https://thesurvivalistblog.net, Permaculture Homesteader

American Redoubt Pages: https://www.survivalmonkey.com/members/americanredoubt1776.11868


What exactly is the American Redoubt? See https://www.survivalblog.com/redoubt.html for more details from James Wesley Rawles, whose description of our Redoubt many of us wholeheartedly support.

We are “Prepared Individuals Living in Uncertain Times” is the motto of James Wesley Rawles SurvivalBlog.com.

We Vote-with-our-Feet and have prepared “For when times get tough, or even if they don't” - the motto of Jack Spirko's SurvivalPodcast (www.thesurvivalpodcast.com)

One could say that the American Redoubt was “founded” when Montana became a State of these United States of America on November 8, 1889, just 1 year before Idaho and Wyoming.

For those who are more attached to the East Coast and can't easily migrate to the American Redoubt in the Intermountain-West, we recommend the blog of the inspirational M.D. Creekmore who posted Joel M. Skousen, Author, Strategic Relocation North American Guide to Safe Places, on the Tennessee Cumberland Plateau solution to the “The East Coast Retreat Dilemma”: http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-of-the-east http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/news-eastern-redoubt-tennessee-cumberland-plateau/

“As a relocation specialist and designer, I found safe retreat locations and helped clients develop high security homes in every state of the union and you can too. The concept that anyone caught East of the Mississippi River is doomed is only partially valid and highly exaggerated. You can achieve a significantly higher level of safety going beyond the Appalachians to the high plateau regions of Tennessee and Kentucky. This massive and relatively unpopulated area is called the Cumberland Plateau—most of which falls within the state of Tennessee.” Joel M. Skousen (https://joelskousen.com/strategic.html) is a relocation specialist and author of “Strategic Relocation North American Guide to Safe Places.” https://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-east-aka-cumberland-plateau-ot-tennessee/

silver

Silver is a chemical element. It is a precious metal which has been used as money. Silver is found natively in nature and may be mined underground.

Silver is considered to be the most flexible and reliable form of barter by many survivalists (such as Jack Spirko, James Wesley Rawles, Joel Skousen, Ragnar Benson, and Alex Jones) specifically in a long term economic crash. Unlike gold, silver is far more flexible for small item purchase and barter. It is available in many recognized forms and freely exchanged as a barter implement even during “good times”.

Silver in Folklore

Silver, considered a metal of purity, is often portrayed in folk tales and modern fiction alike as an effective weapon against vampires, werewolves, and other evil creatures. Silver nails driven into a coffin lid were thought to prevent evil spirits from rising.<ref>Destroying Vampires</ref> Silver is also used a great deal in witchcraft, and is usually worn by participants in modern Wiccan rituals.<ref>The Witch Book: The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft, Wicca, and Neo-Paganism, by Raymond Buckland, Visible Ink Press, 2002</ref>

<gallery> Image:Silver2.jpg|Silver sample </gallery>

Appeal to Survivalists

The primary appeal of silver to survivalists is that it is quite affordable and very divisible. It can be obtained in small quantities over time yet still represents a significant store of wealth in a relatively small weight. Silver has a long history of being used as money.

Why silver is used for coinage

Silver coins were among the first coins ever used, thousands of years ago. The silver standard was used for centuries in many places of the world. And the use of silver for coins, instead of other materials, has many reasons:

  • Silver is liquid, easily tradable, and with a low spread between the prices to buy and sell. A low spread typically occurs when an item is fungible.
  • Silver is easily transportable. Silver and gold have a high value to weight ratio.
  • Silver can be divisible into small units without destroying its value; precious metals can be coined from bars, or melted down into bars again.
  • A silver coin is fungible: that is, one unit or piece must be equivalent to another.
  • A silver coin has a certain weight, or measure, to be verifiably countable.
  • A silver coin is long lasting and durable. A silver coin is not subject to decay.
  • A silver coin has a stable value and an intrinsic value. Silver has been an ever rare metal

Silver Standard

Forms of Silver and Silver Coin

Videos about Silver

Quotes

Gold is the money of kings, silver is the money of gentlemen, barter is the money of peasants and debt is the money of slaves.” – Traditional

See Also

References

<references/>

Find the corresponding Survival Podcast episode

Relevant [[TSP]] Episodes

Search Jack Spirko's Sites

Search Jack Spirko's Kindred Sites

Search Other Survivalist-Prepper-Patriot-Libertarian Sites

Search News Sites

Search Social Media Sites

Search Second Amendment Defender Organizations

Search Firearms Forums

Search Ammunition Markets

Search Major Firearms Sources

Search the Major Search Engines

Materials Economics Currency Invest in tangibles

Silver is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (

árguros,

, both from the Indo-European root

Silver has long been valued as a precious metal, used in currency coins, to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware and utensils (hence the term silverware) and as an investment in the forms of coins and bullion. Silver metal is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics, further research into clinical potential continues.

Characteristics

(~31&nbsp;kg) bullion bar]]

Silver is produced from lighter elements in the Universe through the r-process, a form of nuclear fusion believed to take place during certain types of supernova explosions. This produces many elements heavier than iron, of which silver is one.<ref>

</ref>

Silver is a very ductile, malleable (slightly harder than gold), monovalent coinage metal, with a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high degree of polish. It has the highest electrical conductivity of all metals, even higher than copper, but its greater cost has prevented it from being widely used in place of copper for electrical purposes. An exception to this is in radio-frequency engineering, particularly at VHF and higher frequencies, where silver plating to improve electrical conductivity of parts, including wires, is widely employed. During World War II in the US, 13,540&nbsp;tons were used in the electromagnets used for enriching uranium, mainly because of the wartime shortage of copper.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

Among metals, pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity (the nonmetal carbon in the form of diamond and superfluid helium II are higher) and one of the highest optical reflectivities.<ref name=edwards>

</ref> (Aluminium slightly outdoes silver in parts of the visible spectrum, and silver is a poor reflector of ultraviolet). Silver is the best conductor of heat and electricity of any metal on the periodic table. Silver also has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver halides are photosensitive and are remarkable for their ability to record a latent image that can later be developed chemically. Silver is stable in pure air and water, but tarnishes when it is exposed to air or water containing ozone or hydrogen sulfide, the latter forming a black layer of silver sulfide which can be cleaned off with dilute hydrochloric acid.<ref name=CRC/> The most common oxidation state of silver is +1 (for example, silver nitrate, AgNO3); the less common +2 compounds (for example, silver(II) fluoride, AgF2), and the even less common +3 (for example, potassium tetrafluoroargentate(III), KAgF4) and even +4 compounds (for example, potassium hexafluoroargentate(IV), K2AgF6)<ref>

</ref> are also known.

Isotopes

Naturally occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being slightly more abundant (51.839% natural abundance). Silver's isotopes are almost equal in abundance, something which is rare in the periodic table. Silver's atomic weight is 107.8682(2) g/mol.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29&nbsp;days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45&nbsp;days, and 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13&nbsp;hours. This element has numerous meta states, the most stable being 108mAg (t1/2 = 418&nbsp;years), 110mAg (t1/2 = 249.79&nbsp;days) and 106mAg (t1/2 = 8.28&nbsp;days). All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, and the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes.

Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 93.943 (94Ag) to 126.936 (127Ag);<ref>

</ref> the primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 107Ag, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. The primary decay products before 107Ag are palladium (element 46) isotopes, and the primary products after are cadmium (element 48) isotopes.

The palladium isotope 107Pd decays by beta emission to 107Ag with a half-life of 6.5&nbsp;million years. Iron meteorites are the only objects with a high-enough palladium-to-silver ratio to yield measurable variations in 107Ag abundance. Radiogenic 107Ag was first discovered in the Santa Clara meteorite in 1978.<ref>

</ref> The discoverers suggest the coalescence and differentiation of iron-cored small planets may have occurred 10&nbsp;million years after a nucleosynthetic event. 107Pd–107Ag correlations observed in bodies that have clearly been melted since the accretion of the solar system must reflect the presence of unstable nuclides in the early solar system.<ref>

</ref>

Compounds

Silver metal dissolves readily in nitric acid (

) to produce silver nitrate (

), a transparent crystalline solid that is photosensitive and readily soluble in water. Silver nitrate is used as the starting point for the synthesis of many other silver compounds, as an antiseptic, and as a yellow stain for glass in stained glass. Silver metal does not react with sulfuric acid, which is used in jewelry-making to clean and remove copper oxide firescale from silver articles after silver soldering or annealing. Silver reacts readily with sulfur or hydrogen sulfide

to produce silver sulfide, a dark-colored compound familiar as the tarnish on silver coins and other objects. Silver sulfide

also forms silver whiskers when silver electrical contacts are used in an atmosphere rich in hydrogen sulfide. :4 Ag + O2 + 2 H2S → 2 Ag2S + 2 H2O

equipped with a silver iodide generator for cloud seeding]]

Silver chloride (

) is precipitated from solutions of silver nitrate in the presence of chloride ions, and the other silver halides used in the manufacture of photographic emulsions are made in the same way, using bromide or iodide salts. Silver chloride is used in glass electrodes for pH testing and potentiometric measurement, and as a transparent cement for glass. Silver iodide has been used in attempts to seed clouds to produce rain.<ref name=CRC/> Silver halides are highly insoluble in aqueous solutions and are used in gravimetric analytical methods.

Silver oxide (

), produced when silver nitrate solutions are treated with a base, is used as a positive electrode (anode) in watch batteries. Silver carbonate (

) is precipitated when silver nitrate is treated with sodium carbonate (

).<ref name=photo/> :2 AgNO3 + 2 OH → Ag2O + H2O + 2 NO3 :2 AgNO3 + Na2CO3 → Ag2CO3 + 2 NaNO3 Silver fulminate (

), a powerful, touch-sensitive explosive used in percussion caps, is made by reaction of silver metal with nitric acid in the presence of ethanol (

). Other dangerously explosive silver compounds are silver azide (

), formed by reaction of silver nitrate with sodium azide (

),<ref>

</ref> and silver acetylide, formed when silver reacts with acetylene gas.

Latent images formed in silver halide crystals are developed by treatment with alkaline solutions of reducing agents such as hydroquinone, metol (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate) or ascorbate, which reduce the exposed halide to silver metal. Alkaline solutions of silver nitrate can be reduced to silver metal by reducing sugars such as glucose, and this reaction is used to silver glass mirrors and the interior of glass Christmas ornaments. Silver halides are soluble in solutions of sodium thiosulfate (

) which is used as a photographic fixer, to remove excess silver halide from photographic emulsions after image development.<ref name=photo>

</ref>

Silver metal is attacked by strong oxidizers such as potassium permanganate (

) and potassium dichromate (

), and in the presence of potassium bromide (

); these compounds are used in photography to bleach silver images, converting them to silver halides that can either be fixed with thiosulfate or redeveloped to intensify the original image. Silver forms cyanide complexes (silver cyanide) that are soluble in water in the presence of an excess of cyanide ions. Silver cyanide solutions are used in electroplating of silver.<ref name=photo/>

Although silver normally has oxidation state +1 in compounds, other oxidation states are known, such as +3 in

, produced by the reaction of elemental silver or silver fluoride with krypton difluoride.<ref>

</ref>

Silver artifacts primarily under go three forms of deterioration. Silver Sulfide is the most common form of silver degradation Silver chloride is purple to silvery-yellow colored, and projects slightly from the surface of the artifact or coin. The precipitation of copper in ancient silver can be used to date artifacts. <ref> citeweb|url=http://events.nace.org/library/corrosion/Artifacts/silver.asp </ref>

Applications

Many well-known uses of silver involve its precious metal properties, including currency, decorative items, and mirrors. The contrast between its bright white color and other media makes it very useful to the visual arts. It has also long been used to confer high monetary value as objects (such as silver coins and investment bars) or make objects symbolic of high social or political rank. Silver salts have been used since the Middle Ages to produce a yellow or orange colours to stained glass, and more complex decorative colour reactions can be produced by incorporating silver metal in blown, kilnformed or torchworked glass.<ref>

</ref>

Currency

Silver, in the form of electrum (a gold–silver alloy), was coined to produce money around 700&nbsp;BC by the Lydians. Later, silver was refined and coined in its pure form. Many nations used silver as the basic unit of monetary value. In the modern world, silver bullion has the ISO currency code XAG. The name of the pound sterling (£) reflects the fact it originally represented the value of one pound Tower weight of sterling silver; other historical currencies, such as the French livre, have similar etymologies. During the 19th century, the bimetallism that prevailed in most countries was undermined by the discovery of large deposits of silver in the Americas; fearing a sharp decrease in the value of silver and thus the currency, most states switched to a gold standard by 1900. In some languages, such as Sanskrit, Spanish, French, and Hebrew, the same word means both silver and money.

The 20th century saw a gradual movement to fiat currency, with most of the world monetary system losing its link to precious metals after Richard Nixon took the United States dollar off the gold standard in 1971; the last currency backed by gold was the Swiss franc, which became a pure fiat currency on 1 May 2000. During this same period, silver gradually ceased to be used in circulating coins. In 1964, the United States stopped minting their silver dime and quarter. They minted their last circulating silver coin in 1970 in its 40% half-dollar.<ref name=“SilverHalfDollar”>

</ref>

In 1968, Canada minted their last circulating silver coins which were the 50% dime and the 50% quarter. The Royal Canadian Mint still makes many collectible silver coins with various dollar denominations.

Silver is used as a currency by many individuals, and is legal tender in the US state of Utah.<ref>Utah Law Makes Coins Worth Their Weight in Gold (or Silver), New York Times, 29 May 2011</ref> Silver coins and bullion are also used as an investment to guard against inflation and devaluation.

Jewelry and silverware

). The deeper depressions reperesent lotus buds, an Egyptian motif. Walters Art Museum collections.]]

from the Hildesheim Treasure, 1st century BC]]

Jewelry and silverware are traditionally made from sterling silver (standard silver), an alloy of 92.5% silver with 7.5% copper. In the US, only an alloy consisting of at least 90.0% fine silver can be marketed as “silver” (thus frequently stamped 900). Sterling silver (stamped 925) is harder than pure silver, and has a lower melting point (893°C) than either pure silver or pure copper.<ref name=CRC/> Britannia silver is an alternative, hallmark-quality standard containing 95.8% silver, often used to make silver tableware and wrought plate. With the addition of germanium, the patented modified alloy Argentium Sterling silver is formed, with improved properties, including resistance to firescale.

Sterling silver jewelry is often plated with a thin coat of .999&nbsp;fine silver to give the item a shiny finish. This process is called “flashing”. Silver jewelry can also be plated with rhodium (for a bright, shiny look) or gold (to produce silver gilt).

Silver is a constituent of almost all colored carat gold alloys and carat gold solders, giving the alloys paler color and greater hardness.<ref name=WGCcolors>

</ref> White 9&nbsp;carat gold contains 62.5% silver and 37.5% gold, while 22&nbsp;carat gold contains a minimum of 91.7% gold and 8.3% silver or copper or other metals.<ref name=WGCcolors/>

Historically, the training and guild organization of goldsmiths included silversmiths, as well, and the two crafts remain largely overlapping. Unlike blacksmiths, silversmiths do not shape the metal while it is red-hot, but instead, work it at room temperature with gentle and carefully placed hammer blows. The essence of silversmithing is to take a flat piece of metal and to transform it into a useful object using different hammers, stakes and other simple tools.<ref>

</ref>

While silversmiths specialize in, and principally work silver, they also work with other metals, such as gold, copper, steel, and brass. They make jewelry, silverware, armor, vases, and other artistic items. Because silver is such a malleable metal, silversmiths have a large range of choices with how they prefer to work the metal. Historically, silversmiths are mostly referred to as goldsmiths, which was usually the same guild. In the western Canadian silversmith tradition, guilds do not exist; however, mentoring through colleagues becomes a method of professional learning within a community of craftspeople.<ref>

</ref>

Traditionally, silversmiths mostly made “silverware” (cutlery, tableware, bowls, candlesticks and such). Only in more recent times has silversmithing become mainly work in jewelry, as much less solid silver tableware is now handmade.

Dentistry

Silver can be alloyed with mercury at room temperature to make amalgams that are widely used for dental fillings. To make dental amalgam, a mixture of powdered silver and other metals such as tin and gold is mixed with mercury to make a stiff paste that can be adapted to the shape of a cavity. The dental amalgam achieves initial hardness within minutes, and sets hard in a few hours.

Photography and electronics

Photography used 30.98% of the silver consumed in 1998 in the form of silver nitrate and silver halides. In 2001, 23.47% was used for photography, while 20.03% was used in jewelry, 38.51% for industrial uses, and only 3.5% for coins and medals. The use of silver in photography has rapidly declined, due to the lower demand for consumer color film from the advent of digital technology; since 2007, of the 907&nbsp;million ounces of silver in supply, just 117.6&nbsp;million ounces (13%) were consumed by the photographic sector, about 50% of the amount used in photography in 1998. By 2010, the supply had increased by about 10% to 1056.8&nbsp;million ounces, of which 72.7&nbsp;million ounces were used in the photographic sector, a decline of 38% compared with 2007.<ref>

</ref>

Some electrical and electronic products use silver for its superior conductivity, even when tarnished. The primary example of this is in high quality RF connectors. The increase in conductivity is also taken advantage of in RF engineering at VHF and higher frequencies, where conductors often cannot be scaled by 6%, due to tuning requirements, e.g. cavity filters. As an additional example, printed circuits and RFID antennas can be made using silver paints,<ref name=CRC>

</ref><ref>

</ref> and computer keyboards use silver electrical contacts. Silver cadmium oxide is used in high-voltage contacts because it can withstand arcing.

Some manufacturers produce audio connector cables, speaker wires, and power cables using silver conductors, which have a 6% higher conductivity than ordinary copper ones of identical dimensions, but cost much more. Though debatable, many hi-fi enthusiasts believe silver wires improve sound quality.

Small devices, such as hearing aids and watches, commonly use silver oxide batteries due to their long life and high energy-to-weight ratio. Another usage is high-capacity silver-zinc and silver-cadmium batteries.

Mirrors and optics

Mirrors which need superior reflectivity for visible light are commonly made with silver as the reflecting material in a process called silvering, though common mirrors are backed with aluminium. Using a process called sputtering, silver, along with other optically transparent layers, is applied to glass, creating low emissivity coatings used in high-performance insulated glazing. The amount of silver used per window is small because the silver layer is only 10–15 nanometers thick.<ref>Hill, Russ (1999). Coated Glass Applications and Markets. Fairfield, CA: BOC Coating Technology. pp. 1–4. ISBN 0-914289-01-2.</ref> However, the amount of silver-coated glass worldwide is hundreds of millions of square meters per year, leading to silver consumption on the order of 10 cubic meters or 100 metric tons/year. Silver color seen in architectural glass and tinted windows on vehicles is produced by sputtered chrome, stainless steel or other alloys. Silver is seldom used as the reflector in telescope mirrors, where aluminum is generally preferred because it is cheaper and less susceptible to tarnishing and corrosion.<ref>

</ref> Silver is the reflective coating of choice for solar reflectors.<ref>

</ref>

Other industrial and commercial applications

alto saxophone has a solid silver bell and neck with a solid phosphor bronze body. The bell, neck, and key-cups are extensively engraved. It was manufactured in 2008.]]

Silver and silver alloys are used in the construction of high-quality musical wind instruments of many types.<ref>

</ref> Flutes, in particular, are commonly constructed of silver alloy or silver plated, both for appearance and for the frictional surface properties of silver.<ref>

</ref>

Silver's catalytic properties make it ideal for use as a catalyst in oxidation reactions, for example, the production of formaldehyde from methanol and air by means of silver screens or crystallites containing a minimum 99.95&nbsp;weight-percent silver. Silver (upon some suitable support) is probably the only catalyst available today to convert ethylene to ethylene oxide (later hydrolyzed to ethylene glycol, used for making polyesters)— an important industrial reaction. It is also used in the Oddy test to detect reduced sulfur compounds and carbonyl sulfides.

Because silver readily absorbs free neutrons, it is commonly used to make control rods to regulate the fission chain reaction in pressurized water nuclear reactors, generally in the form of an alloy containing 80% silver, 15% indium, and 5% cadmium.

Silver is used to make solder and brazing alloys, and as a thin layer on bearing surfaces can provide a significant increase in galling resistance and reduce wear under heavy load, particularly against steel.

Biology

Silver stains are used in biology to increase the contrast and visibility of cells and organelles in microscopy. Camillo Golgi used silver stains to study cells of the nervous system and the Golgi apparatus.<ref>

</ref> Silver stains are used to stain proteins in gel electrophoresis and polyacrylamide gels, either as primary stains or to enhance the visibility and contrast of colloidal gold stain.<ref>

</ref> Different yeasts from Brazilian gold mines, bioaccumulate free and complexed silver ions. <ref>

</ref> A sample of the fungus Aspergillus niger was found growing from gold mining solution; and was found to contain cyano metal complexes; such as gold, silver, copper iron and zinc. The fungus also plays a role in the solubilization of heavy metal sulfides. <ref>

</ref>

Medicine

The medical uses of silver include its incorporation into wound dressings, and its use as an antibiotic coating in medical devices. Wound dressings containing silver sulfadiazine or silver nanomaterials may be used to treat external infections. Silver is also used in some medical applications, such as urinary catheters and endotracheal breathing tubes, where there is tentative evidence that it is effective in reducing catheter-related urinary tract infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia respectively.<ref>

</ref><ref name=Bou2012>

</ref> The silver ion (

) is bioactive and in sufficient concentration readily kills bacteria in vitro. Silver and silver nanoparticles are used as an antimicrobial in a variety of industrial, healthcare and domestic applications.<ref>

</ref>

Investing

Silver coins and bullion are used for investing. Mints sell a wide variety of silver products for investors and collectors. Various institutions provide safe storage for large physical silver investments, and various types of silver investments can be made on the stock markets, including mining stocks. Silver bullion bars are sold in a wide range of ounces, provided by various mints and mines around the world. Silver coins and bullion bars are generally 99.9% pure, and labeled with “.999”.

Clothing

Silver inhibits the growth of bacteria and fungi on clothing, such as socks, so is sometimes added to reduce odors and the risk of bacterial and fungal infections. It is incorporated into clothing or shoes either by integrating silver nanoparticles into the polymer from which yarns are made or by coating yarns with silver.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> The loss of silver during washing varies between textile technologies, and the resultant effect on the environment is not yet fully known.<ref>

</ref><ref>Washing nanotextiles: can nanosilver escape from clothes?, European Commission, 17 December 2009</ref>

History

File:Moon symbol crescent.svg

has been used since ancient times to represent silver.]] Silver has been used for thousands of years for ornaments and utensils, trade, and as the basis for many monetary systems. Its value as a precious metal was long considered second only to gold. The word “silver” appears in Anglo-Saxon in various spellings, such as seolfor and siolfor. A similar form is seen throughout the Germanic languages (compare Old High German silabar and silbir). The chemical symbol Ag is from the Latin word for “silver”, argentum (compare Greek άργυρος, árgyros), from the Indo-European root

  • arg-, meaning “white” or “shining”. Silver has been known since ancient times. Mentioned in the Book of Genesis, slag heaps found in Asia Minor and on the islands of the Aegean Sea indicate silver was being separated from lead as early as the 4th millennium BC using surface mining.<ref name=CRC/>

The stability of the Roman currency relied to a high degree on the supply of silver bullion, which Roman miners produced on a scale unparalleled before the discovery of the New World. Reaching a peak production of 200 t per year, an estimated silver stock of 10,000 t circulated in the Roman economy in the middle of the second century AD, five to ten times larger than the combined amount of silver available to medieval Europe and the Caliphate around 800 AD.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> Financial officials of the Roman Empire worried about the loss of silver to pay for highly demanded silk from Sinica (China).

Mines were made in Laureion during 483 BC.<ref>Amemiya, T. (2007) Economy and Economics of Ancient Greece, Taylor & Francis, p. 7, ISBN 0203799313.</ref>

In the Gospels, Jesus' disciple Judas Iscariot is infamous for having taken a bribe of 30 coins of silver from religious leaders in Jerusalem to turn Jesus of Nazareth over to soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas.<ref>

</ref>

The Chinese Empire during most of its history primarily used silver as a means of exchange. In the 19th century, the threat to the balance of payments of the United Kingdom from Chinese merchants demanding payment in silver in exchange for tea, silk, and porcelain led to the Opium War because Britain had to find a way to address the imbalance in payments, and they decided to do so by selling opium produced in their colony of British India to China.<ref>White, Matthew (2012) The Great Big Book of Horrible Things, New York: W.W. Norton, pp. 285–286, ISBN 978-0-393-08192-3.</ref>

, Central Europe, 1490s]]

In certain circumstances, Islam permits Muslim men to wear silver jewelry.

Muhammad himself wore a silver signet ring.<ref>

</ref>

In the Americas, high temperature silver-lead cupellation technology was developed by pre-Inca civilizations as early as AD 60–120.<ref>

</ref>

World War II

During World War II, the short supply of copper led to the substitution of silver in many industrial applications. The United States government loaned out silver from its massive reserve located in the West Point vaults to a wide range of industrial users. One very important use was for bus bars for new aluminum plants needed to make aircraft. During the war, many electrical connectors and switches were silver plated. Another use was aircraft master rod bearings and other types of bearings. Since silver can replace tin in solder at a lower volume, a large amount of tin was freed up for other uses by substituting government silver. Silver was also used as the reflector in searchlights and other types of lights. One high-tech use of silver was for conductors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory used in calutrons to isolate uranium as part of the Manhattan project. (After the war ended, the silver was returned to the vaults.)<ref>

</ref> Silver was used in nickels during the war to save that metal for use in steel alloys.<ref name=“worldwar2”>

</ref>

Occurrence and extraction

File:Silver - world production trend.svg

Silver is found in native form, as an alloy with gold (electrum), and in ores containing sulfur, arsenic, antimony or chlorine. Ores include argentite (Ag2S), chlorargyrite (AgCl) which includes horn silver, and pyrargyrite (Ag3SbS3). The principal sources of silver are the ores of copper, copper-nickel, lead, and lead-zinc obtained from Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, China, Australia, Chile, Poland and Serbia.<ref name=CRC/> Peru, Bolivia and Mexico have been mining silver since 1546, and are still major world producers. Top silver-producing mines are Cannington (Australia), Fresnillo (Mexico), San Cristobal (Bolivia), Antamina (Peru), Rudna (Poland), and Penasquito (Mexico).<ref name=“CPM Group”>

</ref> Top near-term mine development projects through 2015 are Pascua Lama (Chile), Navidad (Argentina), Jaunicipio (Mexico), Malku Khota (Bolivia),<ref>

</ref> and Hackett River (Canada).<ref name=“CPM Group” /> In Central Asia, Tajikistan is known to have some of the largest silver deposits in the world.<ref>

</ref>

The metal is primarily produced as a byproduct of electrolytic copper refining, gold, nickel, and zinc refining, and by application of the Parkes process on lead metal obtained from lead ores that contain small amounts of silver. Commercial-grade fine silver is at least 99.9% pure, and purities greater than 99.999% are available. In 2011, Mexico was the top producer of silver (4,500 tonnes or 19% of the world's total), closely followed by Peru (4,000 t) and China (4,000 t).<ref>Silver Statistics and Information, USGS</ref>

Price

As of 26 August 2013, the price of silver is US$773 per kilogram (US$24.04 per troy ounce<ref>Latest Silver News. kitcosilver.com</ref>). This equates to approximately 1/58 the price of gold. The ratio has varied from 1/15 to 1/100 in the past 100 years.

Physical silver bullion prices are higher than the paper prices, with premiums increasing when demand is high and local shortages occur.<ref>Will Precious Metal Premiums One Day Trump the Spot Price? – International Business Times. Ibtimes.com (18 May 2012). Retrieved on 2012-05-28.</ref>

In 1980, the silver price rose to a peak for modern times of US$49.45&nbsp;per&nbsp;troy ounce (ozt) due to market manipulation of Nelson Bunker Hunt and Herbert Hunt. Inflation-adjusted to 2012, this is approximately US$138 per troy ounce. Some time after Silver Thursday, the price was back to $10/ozt.<ref>

</ref> From 2001 to 2010, the price moved from $4.37 to $20.19 (average London US$/oz).<ref name=“Silver Institute”>

</ref> According to the Silver Institute, silver's recent gains have greatly stemmed from a rise in investor interest and an increase in fabrication demand.<ref name=“Silver Institute”/> In late April 2011, silver reached an all-time high of $49.76/ozt.

In earlier times, silver has commanded much higher prices. In the early 15th century, the price of silver is estimated to have surpassed $1,200 per ounce, based on 2011 dollars.<ref>Live Silver Prices, Silver Bullion Prices & 650 Years of Silver Prices. Goldinfo.net. Retrieved on 2 May 2011.</ref> The discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World during the succeeding centuries has been stated as a cause for its price to have diminished greatly.

The price of silver is important in Judaic law. The lowest fiscal amount a Jewish court, or Beth Din, can convene to adjudicate a case over is a shova pruta (value of a Babylonian pruta coin).

This is fixed at

of pure, unrefined silver, at market price. In a Jewish tradition, still continuing today, on the first birthday of a first-born son, the parents pay the price of five pure-silver coins to a Kohen (priest). Today, the Israel mint fixes the coins at

of silver. The Kohen will often give those silver coins back as a gift for the child to inherit.<ref>Living Judaism: the complete guide to Jewish belief, tradition, Wayne D. Dosick – 1995 “The price was set at five shekalim (the plural of shekel, the monetary unit of the time) for each of the 273 extra firstborn (Numbers 3:47). The money was given to Aaron, the High Priest, the head of the tribe of Levi.”</ref>

Human exposure and consumption

Silver plays no known natural biological role in humans, and possible health effects of silver are a disputed subject. Silver itself is not toxic to humans, but most silver salts are. In large doses, silver and compounds containing it can be absorbed into the circulatory system and become deposited in various body tissues, leading to argyria, which results in a blue-grayish pigmentation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Argyria is rare, and although, so far as known, this condition does not otherwise harm a person's health, it is disfiguring and usually permanent. Mild forms of Argyria are sometimes mistaken for cyanosis.<ref name=CRC/>

Monitoring exposure

Overexposure to silver can occur in workers in the metallurgical industry, persons taking silver-containing dietary supplements, patients who have received silver sulfadiazine treatment, and individuals who accidentally or intentionally ingest silver salts. Silver concentrations in whole blood, plasma, serum, or urine may be measured to monitor for safety in exposed workers, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims, or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdosage.<ref>Baselt, R. (2008) Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, pp. 1429–1431, ISBN 0-9626523-7-7.</ref>

Use in food

Silver is used in food coloring; it has the E174 designation and is approved in the European Union.

The safety of silver for use in food is disputed.<ref name=“latimes”>

</ref> Traditional Indian dishes sometimes include the use of decorative silver foil known as vark,<ref name=“ss”>

</ref> and in various cultures, silver dragée are used to decorate cakes, cookies, and other dessert items.<ref name=“latimes”/> The use of silver as a food additive is not approved in the United States.

See also

References

External links

Invest in $250 to $1000 per month of Silver

silver, Constitutional Silver, Constitutional Silver Coins are 90% Silver, Pre-1965 Silver American Silver Coins

see Spot Price

American Redoubt Bullion Silver Coin

Special Announcement: The American Redoubt Bullion Silver Coin

The new American Redoubt .999 fine silver coin has been launched! These very attractive coins are produced by Mulligan Mint. They are one Troy ounce weight, and are being sold at a very competitive market price. (Spot silver was advantageously below $23.10 per ounce, when I last checked, and many dealers are charging a premium of $9 per ounce over spot!) Lord willing, this release will be followed in a few months by fractional 1/2 ounce, 1/4 ounce, and possibly 1/10th ounce coins of the same design. Note that we will earn a modest commission from each sale, to help support SurvivalBlog.

In addition to being useful for barter, carrying a Redoubt coin might be an important identifier that someday might be your ticket past a roadblock. (This is roughly analogous to the “challenge” coins carried by some current and former Special Forces Group members.)

http://www.survivalblog.com/2013/04/special-announcement-the-american-redoubt-bullion-silver-coin.html

see also American Silver Eagles, TSP Mint (The Survival Podcast Mint), Mulligan Mint, AOCS Silver

price of silver

silver Invest in tangibles like the “Five B's”: 1.) Beans, 2.) Bullets, 3.) Bandaids, 4.) Bullion, 5.) Books.

see Silver, Gold, Platinum, Palladium, Nickel, Copper

see also Invest in Tangibles

1 oz .999 Fine Silver Rounds | Buffalo Design

Cash Discount Price ? $27.44 List Price ? $28.26

Available today for as low as only $0.79 Over Spot per ounce!

Each of these Buffalo Rounds contains 1 Troy Ounce of 99.9% Fine Silver. These Buffalo silver rounds are ISO9001 certified and therefore eligible to be placed in your self directed IRA account.

Multiples of 20 rounds will arrive in tubes.

Due to high demand some orders containing Buffalo rounds may experience a delay of up to 15 business days from the time payment is confirmed. https://www.providentmetals.com/1-oz-999-fine-silver-rounds-buffalo-design.html

2013 Morgan Dollar | 1 oz .999 Fine Silver Bullion Round

$27.64
List Price ? $28.47

Available today for as low as only $0.89 Over Spot!

Each 2013 dated Morgan Dollar round is composed of 1 Troy Ounce of .999 Fine Silver and will arrive in new condition.

Multiples of 20 rounds will arrive in a square plastic tube.

Please note: Coins may arrive with traditional or geared reeding. https://www.providentmetals.com/morgan-dollar-1-oz-999-fine-silver-bullion-round.html

Canadian Junk Silver – What You Need To Know Before Buying

The price of retail gasoline in Canada in the early 1950′s was approximately a dime per liter, and the average price of silver in the early 1950 was $US 0.83 cents/oz. (USD=CDN most of the 50′s). Today, if we could hold that very same 1950 silver dime which contained .06 oz of pure silver, at today’s silver price that dime would be worth about $1.80 (remember that gas stations in the 50′s were more like service gas stations today). Service gas stations are not far away from the $1.80/liter mark and proves my point that when you measure oil in terms of something real like silver, oil has not gone up in price. Fiat paper is being constantly debased, while silver holds up its value as mentioned above. That same silver dime in the 50′s can buy you the same amount of fuel today!

Canadian junk silver coins could be a great way to accumulate silver cheaply. Purchasing .999 pure silver is subject to higher premiums and you will probably get a lot less silver for your money. Another great benefit of junk silver is the divisibility. Try paying for a carton of eggs from your neighbour with a one ounce silver maple leaf (what are you going to do–cut the coin into pieces?). Junk silver in this situation can come in handy for its divisibility: it comes in dimes, quarters, half-dollars, and dollars which could make barter and trade much easier. Junk silver is also considered “legal tender coins” and you can avoid the assaying charges which are usually incurred by bar-holders if you sell them. The price of these coins vary every day as the price of them essential follows the spot price of silver traded on the markets. But before purchasing Canadian junk silver coins, there are a few things to consider and to watch out for. Here is what you need to know! Canadian Silver Coins Pre-1920

Canadian silver coins dated before 1920 are (.925%) silver. These coins are usually rare and could be charged a premium. Unless your aim is to collect old coins as collectibles I wouldn’t suggest purchasing these coins. I would avoid all numismatic and all historical coins. You can accumulate much more silver with coins minted between 1920-1966. Canadian Silver Coins 1920 – 1966

Dollars, half-dollars, quarters, and dimes from 1920 – 1966 consist of 80% silver by weight. A calculation to figure out the pure silver weight is by multiplying 0.6 oz per dollar of coinage. For instance, the calculation for a dime is 0.6 x .1 = .06 oz of pure silver; or $10 face value is 0.6 x 10 = 6 oz of pure silver). Multiplying the total by today’s price would give you the “melt” value of the coins. These coins are the best type of silver junk coins you can find for your money. See below for our store dealer reviews and where to get them for the best possible price.

Canadian Junk Silver Prices

For live prices of Canadian junk silver, half dollars, quarters, and dimes, see here. http://www.coinflation.com/canada/#preciousmetal

Or you can see this useful Canadian junk silver calculator to determine bulk prices here. http://www.coinnews.net/tools/canadian-silver-coin-calculator/

Canadian Junk Silver Tax Issues.

Junk silver can be a great way to accumulate silver for low premiums, however, these premiums can often times be voided if taxes and other fees are applied. In Canada, pure gold and silver bullion and coins are tax-free. The CRA defines non-taxable pure gold to be at least 99.5% and pure silver at least 99.9%. Depending on where you live in Canada, junk silver will be subject to a sales tax(GST/HST) if you buy online via a coin dealer, and even perhaps a PST tax if you buy from a local coin shop (If your place of residence is subject to a PST). Check with the dealer before purchasing. In any case, there are ways to minimize and avoid extra fees.

Where to buy Canadian Junk Silver?

Typically, the premiums for junk silver is lower than for pure gold and silver. I’ve seen premiums anywhere from 0% to 5%. Nevertheless, here is a good list to find Canadian junk silver coins at good rates.

How to sell junk silver?

At the end, junk silver could be a great way to accumulate silver cheaply. However, one point worth mentioning is that banks will only pay you face value for the coins if you try to sell them there. If you want to sell your junk silver, you can usually sell them back to a coin dealer. You can also sell them on craigslist or ebay and you might get a better price.

However, another strategy is to trade them at spot price for something you need later on, giving you the best price for your junk silver. At a time where these are many risks ahead in our financial system, I suggest it would be wise to prepare yourself in ahead of times with real money, one with intrinsic value.

http://www.economicreason.com/goldismoney/canadian-junk-silver-what-you-need-to-know-before-buying/

JWR Replies: First and foremost, I'll begin with the caveat that SurvivalBlog readers should not invest anything in precious metals until after they have an honest year one year food supply set aside, and they already have all of the other requisite essentials for their family's preparedness (Water filtration, first aid, commo gear, guns, ammo, and so forth.)

I often stress in my writings and in my conversations with consulting clients that the precious metals emphasis for preparedness-minded families should be on common date pre-1965 US 90% silver bullion coins. Leave the numismatic coins to the collectors. For barter purposes, you strictly want the most bullion value for your dollar. Pre-1965 US coins are widely recognized here in the US, and hence will be the most useful for barter transactions. Outside of the US, other coins will doubtless be preferable. In Mexico, it will likely be either be silver Pesos, or perhaps silver “Libertad” Onza de Plata coins. In Canada, it would be pre-1968 (80% silver) quarters, and in Australia it would be pre-1954 silver Australian shilling coinage or perhaps the handsome new .999 fine silver Kookaburras.

Many people buy one-ounce .999 fine silver “trade dollars.” They do have their merits–most notably that they are minted in precise ounce increments–unlike 90% “junk” silver U.S. coinage minted in or before 1964. If you already have some one ounce rounds, keep them, but do so with the realization that they are not nearly as readily recognizable and trusted by the general public for barter purposes, and hence they may not be trusted in a post-collapse economy. (The question you can expect to hear is “How do I know this is real?” That will only rarely be an issue with pre-'65 US coinage.) Also, since most of these have no hardeners added, (they are pure silver) they will begin to wear quickly if a barter economy carries on for an extended period of time. If that ever happens, then through trade you should gradually get rid of your silver “rounds” and “medallions”, and replace them with pre-1965 quarter and half dollars.

It doesn't make much difference if you buy 90% silver dimes, quarters, or half dollars. However, it has been suggested that silver dimes might be the inferior choice, only because they tended to be more heavily circulated and hence suffered the most from surface wear–to the point that they noticeably started to lose weight. (If you are offered a bag ($1,000 face value) or a half bag ($500 face value) of dimes, take a look and see if it contains a high percentage of heavily-worn Mercury dimes. If that is the case, then you might want to pass. (A heavily-worn Mercury dime can be shy as much as 7% of its original weight–and hence you aren't getting full value for your money.)

http://www.survivalblog.com/2008/06/letter_re_advice_on_getting_st.html

http://www.coinweek.com/expert-columns/the-coin-analyst-what%E2%80%99s-the-best-way-to-invest-in-silver/

1920 - 1967 Canadian minted coins seem to be the most commonly collected and follow this general rule:

Any combination of $1 face value 1920 - 1967 Canadian minted coins contain 0.6 Troy Ounces of silver (said coins have 80% silver content), with the exception of dimes and nickels.

In 1967-1968 it appears there were 50% silver dimes introduced alongside the 80% silver dimes, and in 1968 the 80% silver coins were discontinued. If post-SHTF barter is your intention, I'd say not to take the risk with dimes minted after 1966.

Only 1920-1921 Canadian nickels had 80% silver content (and thus, 0.6 troy oz to the dollar). Prior too, 1858 - 1919 nickels had 92.5% silver content. Any later nickels are either nickel, steel or copper. Current circulation Canadian “nickels” are 94.5% steel, so I can't imagine the same rule with American nickels applying to current Canadian nickels. Either way, Canadian nickels are, for the most part useless - and I'm not going to bother trying to search my pocket change for them.

The 1920 - 1967 nickels, dimes, quarters have a very similar appearance as current circulation coins (except for a different monarch, God Save the Queen, eh?) The other coins (half dollar and silver dollar) are no longer in circulation.

One other interesting observation is that prior to 1920, with all Canadian coins having 92.5% silver content, each $1 face value contains 0.693 Troy Ounce of silver. However, these coins don't appear to be as common as the 1920 - 1967 coins, and I think in a SHTF situation, I believe either too few people will recognize these coins for what they are or the people who do will realize they have collectors value above the silver content.

Either way, I believe that “junk” 1920 - 1966 Canadian dimes, quarters, half dollars, and silver dollars are what you should be looking for, if you are a Canadian.

Here are the Wikipedia links for each Canadian coin:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_silver_dollar

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_quarter

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dime_(Canadian_coin)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel_%28Canadian_coin%29

http://www.survivalblog.com/2010/12/letter-re-hunting-for-canadian.html

http://www.survivalblog.com/2008/09/letter-re-silver-canadian-leaf.html

JWR: Replies: The premium is generally much higher for silver dollars (than dimes, quarters and halves), because even noticeably-worn dollars are in constant demand for the jewelry trade. (Belt buckles, etc.) A dollar coin also has a hair more silver content, than four quarters, but that is only significant for large quantities. (765 ounces versus 715 ounces, per $1,000 face value, if I recall correctly. That info is in my FAQ.)

Therefore, if your goal is accumulating a stock of coins for barter, then unless you can get silver dollars at nearly the same price as smaller silver, then buy only the smaller denomination silver coins. One ounce silver American Eagles also command a higher premium than generic trade dollars. Although they are vaguely more recognizable than generics for barter purposes, I don't think that they are worth paying the premium. The type of trade “dollars” that I look for are the commercially made (not from a the U.S. Mint) “US Assay Silver – .999 Fine – Trade Unit” one-ounce rounds. (To see an example, here is one that recently sold on eBay.) These are quite recognizable and hence will be trusted for barter–perhaps even more so than even American Eagles from the US Mint. Sadly, the average man on the street is ignorant about precious metals has probably never held an American Eagle coin in his hand. If you can find some these rounds (with the current scarcity), they sell for about 20% less that American Eagles or Canadian Maple Leafs. But of course in today's incredibly scant market, beggars can't be choosers.

http://www.survivalblog.com/2008/10/letter-re-advice-on-silver-coi-1.html

Sir: I was wondering if you could tell me if it would be wise to buy pre-'65 [United States] silver coins, as I live in Canada. Do you think people would understand their value here? Also, any idea where I would get them? I am not having much luck with Internet searches. Thanks for your time. - Kirk in Canada

JWR Replies: To be sure that they are recognizable for barter, you should buy the equivalent Canadian mint circulated coins. These available at your local coin shop. Ask for well-worn “junk” coins that don't have a numismatic premium price. For example: Canadian Quarters minted from 1920 to 1967 are 80% silver, and the ones that were minted in or before 1919 have 92.5% silver content.

http://www.survivalblog.com/2010/10/letter-re-silver-barter-coin-o.html

Canadian 80% Pure Silver Coins are priced to sell at $0.25 BELOW SPOT in any quantity!

Each $1 Face Value in 80% Silver Canadian Coins contains .6 Troy Ounce of Pure Silver! This group will be comprised of Silver Dollars, Halves, Quarters or Dimes or combination. Dates of Our Choice.

https://www.providentmetals.com/1-face-value-canada-80-silver-coins.html

In summary: If you want to buy a few numismatic coins because you enjoy them, by all means do so. But as an investment strategy, buying numismatics is not wise. If you believe, as I do, that silver is set to skyrocket, then the name of the game is getting as much silver in your hands as possible… With one caveat: It has to be liquid.

http://www.silvermonthly.com/the-10-worst-silver-coins-for-investment/

Add Chris Duane


Survival

James Wesley Rawles' site:survivalblog.com "Silver"

Jack Spirko's http://www.thesurvivalpodcast.com "Silver"

Jack Spirko's http://www.thesurvivalpodcast.com/forum "Silver"

MD Creekmore's site: http://thesurvivalistblog.net "Silver"

John Jacob Schmidt's http://www.radiofreeredoubt.com "Silver"

http://charlescarrollsociety.com "Silver"

Dave Duffy, Massad Ayoob, John Silveira, and Claire Wolfe's https://www.backwoodshome.com "Silver"

Dr. Bones & Nurse Amy's http://www.doomandbloom.net "Silver"

Lisa Bedford's http://thesurvivalmom.com "Silver"

Paul Wheaton's https://www.permies.com "Silver"

http://www.conservapedia.com "Silver"

Joel Skousen's http://www.worldaffairsbrief.com "Silver"

Alex Jones's http://www.infowars.com "Silver"

Alex Jones's http://www.prisonplanet.com "Silver"

Chuck Baldwin's http://chuckbaldwinlive.com "Silver" John Birch Society's http://www.thenewamerican.com "Silver"

Mike Adams' http://naturalnews.com "Silver"

http://www.survivalmonkey.com "Silver"

http://www.survivalistboards.com "Silver"

https://www.shtfplan.com "Silver"

William Frank Buckley 's http://www.nationalreview.com "Silver"

http://www.americanthinker.com "Silver"

Bob Livingston's http://personalliberty.com "Silver"

http://etfdailynews.com "Silver"

http://theeconomiccollapseblog.com "Silver"

http://www.paratusfamiliablog.com "Silver"

An opinionated rural north Idaho housewife's http://www.rural-revolution.com "Silver"

http://www.breitbart.com "Silver"

https://cnsnews.com "Silver"

http://www.prepper-resources.com "Silver"

americanpreppersnetwork.com "Silver"

http://youtube.com "Silver"

http://youtube.com "nutnfancy Survival"

http://amazon.com "Silver"

http://books.google.com "Silver"

http://facebook.com "Silver"

http://twitter.com "Silver" http://www.alpharubicon.com "Silver"

http://www.thehighroad.org "Silver"

Jeff Quinn's http://www.gunblast.com "Silver"

http://www.nranews.com "Silver"

http://www.nraila.org "Silver"

http://www.nrablog.com "Silver"

https://gunowners.org "Silver"

http://capwiz.com/gunowners "Silver"

Snippet from Wikipedia: Survival

Survival is the act of surviving; to stay living.


Snippet from Wikipedia: Silver

Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European h₂erǵ: "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form ("native silver"), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal. Its purity is typically measured on a per-mille basis; a 94%-pure alloy is described as "0.940 fine". As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures.

Other than in currency and as an investment medium (coins and bullion), silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, jewellery, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils (hence the term silverware), in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery. Its compounds are used in photographic and X-ray film.

Silver is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (

árguros,

, both from the Indo-European root

Silver has long been valued as a precious metal, used in currency coins, to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware and utensils (hence the term silverware) and as an investment in the forms of coins and bullion. Silver metal is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics, further research into clinical potential continues.

Characteristics

(~31&nbsp;kg) bullion bar]]

Silver is produced from lighter elements in the Universe through the r-process, a form of nuclear fusion believed to take place during certain types of supernova explosions. This produces many elements heavier than iron, of which silver is one.<ref>

</ref>

Silver is a very ductile, malleable (slightly harder than gold), monovalent coinage metal, with a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high degree of polish. It has the highest electrical conductivity of all metals, even higher than copper, but its greater cost has prevented it from being widely used in place of copper for electrical purposes. An exception to this is in radio-frequency engineering, particularly at VHF and higher frequencies, where silver plating to improve electrical conductivity of parts, including wires, is widely employed. During World War II in the US, 13,540&nbsp;tons were used in the electromagnets used for enriching uranium, mainly because of the wartime shortage of copper.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

Among metals, pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity (the nonmetal carbon in the form of diamond and superfluid helium II are higher) and one of the highest optical reflectivities.<ref name=edwards>

</ref> (Aluminium slightly outdoes silver in parts of the visible spectrum, and silver is a poor reflector of ultraviolet). Silver is the best conductor of heat and electricity of any metal on the periodic table. Silver also has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver halides are photosensitive and are remarkable for their ability to record a latent image that can later be developed chemically. Silver is stable in pure air and water, but tarnishes when it is exposed to air or water containing ozone or hydrogen sulfide, the latter forming a black layer of silver sulfide which can be cleaned off with dilute hydrochloric acid.<ref name=CRC/> The most common oxidation state of silver is +1 (for example, silver nitrate, AgNO3); the less common +2 compounds (for example, silver(II) fluoride, AgF2), and the even less common +3 (for example, potassium tetrafluoroargentate(III), KAgF4) and even +4 compounds (for example, potassium hexafluoroargentate(IV), K2AgF6)<ref>

</ref> are also known.

Isotopes

Naturally occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being slightly more abundant (51.839% natural abundance). Silver's isotopes are almost equal in abundance, something which is rare in the periodic table. Silver's atomic weight is 107.8682(2) g/mol.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29&nbsp;days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45&nbsp;days, and 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13&nbsp;hours. This element has numerous meta states, the most stable being 108mAg (t1/2 = 418&nbsp;years), 110mAg (t1/2 = 249.79&nbsp;days) and 106mAg (t1/2 = 8.28&nbsp;days). All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, and the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes.

Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 93.943 (94Ag) to 126.936 (127Ag);<ref>

</ref> the primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 107Ag, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. The primary decay products before 107Ag are palladium (element 46) isotopes, and the primary products after are cadmium (element 48) isotopes.

The palladium isotope 107Pd decays by beta emission to 107Ag with a half-life of 6.5&nbsp;million years. Iron meteorites are the only objects with a high-enough palladium-to-silver ratio to yield measurable variations in 107Ag abundance. Radiogenic 107Ag was first discovered in the Santa Clara meteorite in 1978.<ref>

</ref> The discoverers suggest the coalescence and differentiation of iron-cored small planets may have occurred 10&nbsp;million years after a nucleosynthetic event. 107Pd–107Ag correlations observed in bodies that have clearly been melted since the accretion of the solar system must reflect the presence of unstable nuclides in the early solar system.<ref>

</ref>

Compounds

Silver metal dissolves readily in nitric acid (

) to produce silver nitrate (

), a transparent crystalline solid that is photosensitive and readily soluble in water. Silver nitrate is used as the starting point for the synthesis of many other silver compounds, as an antiseptic, and as a yellow stain for glass in stained glass. Silver metal does not react with sulfuric acid, which is used in jewelry-making to clean and remove copper oxide firescale from silver articles after silver soldering or annealing. Silver reacts readily with sulfur or hydrogen sulfide

to produce silver sulfide, a dark-colored compound familiar as the tarnish on silver coins and other objects. Silver sulfide

also forms silver whiskers when silver electrical contacts are used in an atmosphere rich in hydrogen sulfide. :4 Ag + O2 + 2 H2S → 2 Ag2S + 2 H2O

equipped with a silver iodide generator for cloud seeding]]

Silver chloride (

) is precipitated from solutions of silver nitrate in the presence of chloride ions, and the other silver halides used in the manufacture of photographic emulsions are made in the same way, using bromide or iodide salts. Silver chloride is used in glass electrodes for pH testing and potentiometric measurement, and as a transparent cement for glass. Silver iodide has been used in attempts to seed clouds to produce rain.<ref name=CRC/> Silver halides are highly insoluble in aqueous solutions and are used in gravimetric analytical methods.

Silver oxide (

), produced when silver nitrate solutions are treated with a base, is used as a positive electrode (anode) in watch batteries. Silver carbonate (

) is precipitated when silver nitrate is treated with sodium carbonate (

).<ref name=photo/> :2 AgNO3 + 2 OH → Ag2O + H2O + 2 NO3 :2 AgNO3 + Na2CO3 → Ag2CO3 + 2 NaNO3 Silver fulminate (

), a powerful, touch-sensitive explosive used in percussion caps, is made by reaction of silver metal with nitric acid in the presence of ethanol (

). Other dangerously explosive silver compounds are silver azide (

), formed by reaction of silver nitrate with sodium azide (

),<ref>

</ref> and silver acetylide, formed when silver reacts with acetylene gas.

Latent images formed in silver halide crystals are developed by treatment with alkaline solutions of reducing agents such as hydroquinone, metol (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate) or ascorbate, which reduce the exposed halide to silver metal. Alkaline solutions of silver nitrate can be reduced to silver metal by reducing sugars such as glucose, and this reaction is used to silver glass mirrors and the interior of glass Christmas ornaments. Silver halides are soluble in solutions of sodium thiosulfate (

) which is used as a photographic fixer, to remove excess silver halide from photographic emulsions after image development.<ref name=photo>

</ref>

Silver metal is attacked by strong oxidizers such as potassium permanganate (

) and potassium dichromate (

), and in the presence of potassium bromide (

); these compounds are used in photography to bleach silver images, converting them to silver halides that can either be fixed with thiosulfate or redeveloped to intensify the original image. Silver forms cyanide complexes (silver cyanide) that are soluble in water in the presence of an excess of cyanide ions. Silver cyanide solutions are used in electroplating of silver.<ref name=photo/>

Although silver normally has oxidation state +1 in compounds, other oxidation states are known, such as +3 in

, produced by the reaction of elemental silver or silver fluoride with krypton difluoride.<ref>

</ref>

Silver artifacts primarily under go three forms of deterioration. Silver Sulfide is the most common form of silver degradation Silver chloride is purple to silvery-yellow colored, and projects slightly from the surface of the artifact or coin. The precipitation of copper in ancient silver can be used to date artifacts. <ref> citeweb|url=http://events.nace.org/library/corrosion/Artifacts/silver.asp </ref>

Applications

Many well-known uses of silver involve its precious metal properties, including currency, decorative items, and mirrors. The contrast between its bright white color and other media makes it very useful to the visual arts. It has also long been used to confer high monetary value as objects (such as silver coins and investment bars) or make objects symbolic of high social or political rank. Silver salts have been used since the Middle Ages to produce a yellow or orange colours to stained glass, and more complex decorative colour reactions can be produced by incorporating silver metal in blown, kilnformed or torchworked glass.<ref>

</ref>

Currency

Silver, in the form of electrum (a gold–silver alloy), was coined to produce money around 700&nbsp;BC by the Lydians. Later, silver was refined and coined in its pure form. Many nations used silver as the basic unit of monetary value. In the modern world, silver bullion has the ISO currency code XAG. The name of the pound sterling (£) reflects the fact it originally represented the value of one pound Tower weight of sterling silver; other historical currencies, such as the French livre, have similar etymologies. During the 19th century, the bimetallism that prevailed in most countries was undermined by the discovery of large deposits of silver in the Americas; fearing a sharp decrease in the value of silver and thus the currency, most states switched to a gold standard by 1900. In some languages, such as Sanskrit, Spanish, French, and Hebrew, the same word means both silver and money.

The 20th century saw a gradual movement to fiat currency, with most of the world monetary system losing its link to precious metals after Richard Nixon took the United States dollar off the gold standard in 1971; the last currency backed by gold was the Swiss franc, which became a pure fiat currency on 1 May 2000. During this same period, silver gradually ceased to be used in circulating coins. In 1964, the United States stopped minting their silver dime and quarter. They minted their last circulating silver coin in 1970 in its 40% half-dollar.<ref name=“SilverHalfDollar”>

</ref>

In 1968, Canada minted their last circulating silver coins which were the 50% dime and the 50% quarter. The Royal Canadian Mint still makes many collectible silver coins with various dollar denominations.

Silver is used as a currency by many individuals, and is legal tender in the US state of Utah.<ref>Utah Law Makes Coins Worth Their Weight in Gold (or Silver), New York Times, 29 May 2011</ref> Silver coins and bullion are also used as an investment to guard against inflation and devaluation.

Jewelry and silverware

). The deeper depressions reperesent lotus buds, an Egyptian motif. Walters Art Museum collections.]]

from the Hildesheim Treasure, 1st century BC]]

Jewelry and silverware are traditionally made from sterling silver (standard silver), an alloy of 92.5% silver with 7.5% copper. In the US, only an alloy consisting of at least 90.0% fine silver can be marketed as “silver” (thus frequently stamped 900). Sterling silver (stamped 925) is harder than pure silver, and has a lower melting point (893°C) than either pure silver or pure copper.<ref name=CRC/> Britannia silver is an alternative, hallmark-quality standard containing 95.8% silver, often used to make silver tableware and wrought plate. With the addition of germanium, the patented modified alloy Argentium Sterling silver is formed, with improved properties, including resistance to firescale.

Sterling silver jewelry is often plated with a thin coat of .999&nbsp;fine silver to give the item a shiny finish. This process is called “flashing”. Silver jewelry can also be plated with rhodium (for a bright, shiny look) or gold (to produce silver gilt).

Silver is a constituent of almost all colored carat gold alloys and carat gold solders, giving the alloys paler color and greater hardness.<ref name=WGCcolors>

</ref> White 9&nbsp;carat gold contains 62.5% silver and 37.5% gold, while 22&nbsp;carat gold contains a minimum of 91.7% gold and 8.3% silver or copper or other metals.<ref name=WGCcolors/>

Historically, the training and guild organization of goldsmiths included silversmiths, as well, and the two crafts remain largely overlapping. Unlike blacksmiths, silversmiths do not shape the metal while it is red-hot, but instead, work it at room temperature with gentle and carefully placed hammer blows. The essence of silversmithing is to take a flat piece of metal and to transform it into a useful object using different hammers, stakes and other simple tools.<ref>

</ref>

While silversmiths specialize in, and principally work silver, they also work with other metals, such as gold, copper, steel, and brass. They make jewelry, silverware, armor, vases, and other artistic items. Because silver is such a malleable metal, silversmiths have a large range of choices with how they prefer to work the metal. Historically, silversmiths are mostly referred to as goldsmiths, which was usually the same guild. In the western Canadian silversmith tradition, guilds do not exist; however, mentoring through colleagues becomes a method of professional learning within a community of craftspeople.<ref>

</ref>

Traditionally, silversmiths mostly made “silverware” (cutlery, tableware, bowls, candlesticks and such). Only in more recent times has silversmithing become mainly work in jewelry, as much less solid silver tableware is now handmade.

Dentistry

Silver can be alloyed with mercury at room temperature to make amalgams that are widely used for dental fillings. To make dental amalgam, a mixture of powdered silver and other metals such as tin and gold is mixed with mercury to make a stiff paste that can be adapted to the shape of a cavity. The dental amalgam achieves initial hardness within minutes, and sets hard in a few hours.

Photography and electronics

Photography used 30.98% of the silver consumed in 1998 in the form of silver nitrate and silver halides. In 2001, 23.47% was used for photography, while 20.03% was used in jewelry, 38.51% for industrial uses, and only 3.5% for coins and medals. The use of silver in photography has rapidly declined, due to the lower demand for consumer color film from the advent of digital technology; since 2007, of the 907&nbsp;million ounces of silver in supply, just 117.6&nbsp;million ounces (13%) were consumed by the photographic sector, about 50% of the amount used in photography in 1998. By 2010, the supply had increased by about 10% to 1056.8&nbsp;million ounces, of which 72.7&nbsp;million ounces were used in the photographic sector, a decline of 38% compared with 2007.<ref>

</ref>

Some electrical and electronic products use silver for its superior conductivity, even when tarnished. The primary example of this is in high quality RF connectors. The increase in conductivity is also taken advantage of in RF engineering at VHF and higher frequencies, where conductors often cannot be scaled by 6%, due to tuning requirements, e.g. cavity filters. As an additional example, printed circuits and RFID antennas can be made using silver paints,<ref name=CRC>

</ref><ref>

</ref> and computer keyboards use silver electrical contacts. Silver cadmium oxide is used in high-voltage contacts because it can withstand arcing.

Some manufacturers produce audio connector cables, speaker wires, and power cables using silver conductors, which have a 6% higher conductivity than ordinary copper ones of identical dimensions, but cost much more. Though debatable, many hi-fi enthusiasts believe silver wires improve sound quality.

Small devices, such as hearing aids and watches, commonly use silver oxide batteries due to their long life and high energy-to-weight ratio. Another usage is high-capacity silver-zinc and silver-cadmium batteries.

Mirrors and optics

Mirrors which need superior reflectivity for visible light are commonly made with silver as the reflecting material in a process called silvering, though common mirrors are backed with aluminium. Using a process called sputtering, silver, along with other optically transparent layers, is applied to glass, creating low emissivity coatings used in high-performance insulated glazing. The amount of silver used per window is small because the silver layer is only 10–15 nanometers thick.<ref>Hill, Russ (1999). Coated Glass Applications and Markets. Fairfield, CA: BOC Coating Technology. pp. 1–4. ISBN 0-914289-01-2.</ref> However, the amount of silver-coated glass worldwide is hundreds of millions of square meters per year, leading to silver consumption on the order of 10 cubic meters or 100 metric tons/year. Silver color seen in architectural glass and tinted windows on vehicles is produced by sputtered chrome, stainless steel or other alloys. Silver is seldom used as the reflector in telescope mirrors, where aluminum is generally preferred because it is cheaper and less susceptible to tarnishing and corrosion.<ref>

</ref> Silver is the reflective coating of choice for solar reflectors.<ref>

</ref>

Other industrial and commercial applications

alto saxophone has a solid silver bell and neck with a solid phosphor bronze body. The bell, neck, and key-cups are extensively engraved. It was manufactured in 2008.]]

Silver and silver alloys are used in the construction of high-quality musical wind instruments of many types.<ref>

</ref> Flutes, in particular, are commonly constructed of silver alloy or silver plated, both for appearance and for the frictional surface properties of silver.<ref>

</ref>

Silver's catalytic properties make it ideal for use as a catalyst in oxidation reactions, for example, the production of formaldehyde from methanol and air by means of silver screens or crystallites containing a minimum 99.95&nbsp;weight-percent silver. Silver (upon some suitable support) is probably the only catalyst available today to convert ethylene to ethylene oxide (later hydrolyzed to ethylene glycol, used for making polyesters)— an important industrial reaction. It is also used in the Oddy test to detect reduced sulfur compounds and carbonyl sulfides.

Because silver readily absorbs free neutrons, it is commonly used to make control rods to regulate the fission chain reaction in pressurized water nuclear reactors, generally in the form of an alloy containing 80% silver, 15% indium, and 5% cadmium.

Silver is used to make solder and brazing alloys, and as a thin layer on bearing surfaces can provide a significant increase in galling resistance and reduce wear under heavy load, particularly against steel.

Biology

Silver stains are used in biology to increase the contrast and visibility of cells and organelles in microscopy. Camillo Golgi used silver stains to study cells of the nervous system and the Golgi apparatus.<ref>

</ref> Silver stains are used to stain proteins in gel electrophoresis and polyacrylamide gels, either as primary stains or to enhance the visibility and contrast of colloidal gold stain.<ref>

</ref> Different yeasts from Brazilian gold mines, bioaccumulate free and complexed silver ions. <ref>

</ref> A sample of the fungus Aspergillus niger was found growing from gold mining solution; and was found to contain cyano metal complexes; such as gold, silver, copper iron and zinc. The fungus also plays a role in the solubilization of heavy metal sulfides. <ref>

</ref>

Medicine

The medical uses of silver include its incorporation into wound dressings, and its use as an antibiotic coating in medical devices. Wound dressings containing silver sulfadiazine or silver nanomaterials may be used to treat external infections. Silver is also used in some medical applications, such as urinary catheters and endotracheal breathing tubes, where there is tentative evidence that it is effective in reducing catheter-related urinary tract infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia respectively.<ref>

</ref><ref name=Bou2012>

</ref> The silver ion (

) is bioactive and in sufficient concentration readily kills bacteria in vitro. Silver and silver nanoparticles are used as an antimicrobial in a variety of industrial, healthcare and domestic applications.<ref>

</ref>

Investing

Silver coins and bullion are used for investing. Mints sell a wide variety of silver products for investors and collectors. Various institutions provide safe storage for large physical silver investments, and various types of silver investments can be made on the stock markets, including mining stocks. Silver bullion bars are sold in a wide range of ounces, provided by various mints and mines around the world. Silver coins and bullion bars are generally 99.9% pure, and labeled with “.999”.

Clothing

Silver inhibits the growth of bacteria and fungi on clothing, such as socks, so is sometimes added to reduce odors and the risk of bacterial and fungal infections. It is incorporated into clothing or shoes either by integrating silver nanoparticles into the polymer from which yarns are made or by coating yarns with silver.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> The loss of silver during washing varies between textile technologies, and the resultant effect on the environment is not yet fully known.<ref>

</ref><ref>Washing nanotextiles: can nanosilver escape from clothes?, European Commission, 17 December 2009</ref>

History

File:Moon symbol crescent.svg

has been used since ancient times to represent silver.]] Silver has been used for thousands of years for ornaments and utensils, trade, and as the basis for many monetary systems. Its value as a precious metal was long considered second only to gold. The word “silver” appears in Anglo-Saxon in various spellings, such as seolfor and siolfor. A similar form is seen throughout the Germanic languages (compare Old High German silabar and silbir). The chemical symbol Ag is from the Latin word for “silver”, argentum (compare Greek άργυρος, árgyros), from the Indo-European root

  • arg-, meaning “white” or “shining”. Silver has been known since ancient times. Mentioned in the Book of Genesis, slag heaps found in Asia Minor and on the islands of the Aegean Sea indicate silver was being separated from lead as early as the 4th millennium BC using surface mining.<ref name=CRC/>

The stability of the Roman currency relied to a high degree on the supply of silver bullion, which Roman miners produced on a scale unparalleled before the discovery of the New World. Reaching a peak production of 200 t per year, an estimated silver stock of 10,000 t circulated in the Roman economy in the middle of the second century AD, five to ten times larger than the combined amount of silver available to medieval Europe and the Caliphate around 800 AD.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> Financial officials of the Roman Empire worried about the loss of silver to pay for highly demanded silk from Sinica (China).

Mines were made in Laureion during 483 BC.<ref>Amemiya, T. (2007) Economy and Economics of Ancient Greece, Taylor & Francis, p. 7, ISBN 0203799313.</ref>

In the Gospels, Jesus' disciple Judas Iscariot is infamous for having taken a bribe of 30 coins of silver from religious leaders in Jerusalem to turn Jesus of Nazareth over to soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas.<ref>

</ref>

The Chinese Empire during most of its history primarily used silver as a means of exchange. In the 19th century, the threat to the balance of payments of the United Kingdom from Chinese merchants demanding payment in silver in exchange for tea, silk, and porcelain led to the Opium War because Britain had to find a way to address the imbalance in payments, and they decided to do so by selling opium produced in their colony of British India to China.<ref>White, Matthew (2012) The Great Big Book of Horrible Things, New York: W.W. Norton, pp. 285–286, ISBN 978-0-393-08192-3.</ref>

, Central Europe, 1490s]]

In certain circumstances, Islam permits Muslim men to wear silver jewelry.

Muhammad himself wore a silver signet ring.<ref>

</ref>

In the Americas, high temperature silver-lead cupellation technology was developed by pre-Inca civilizations as early as AD 60–120.<ref>

</ref>

World War II

During World War II, the short supply of copper led to the substitution of silver in many industrial applications. The United States government loaned out silver from its massive reserve located in the West Point vaults to a wide range of industrial users. One very important use was for bus bars for new aluminum plants needed to make aircraft. During the war, many electrical connectors and switches were silver plated. Another use was aircraft master rod bearings and other types of bearings. Since silver can replace tin in solder at a lower volume, a large amount of tin was freed up for other uses by substituting government silver. Silver was also used as the reflector in searchlights and other types of lights. One high-tech use of silver was for conductors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory used in calutrons to isolate uranium as part of the Manhattan project. (After the war ended, the silver was returned to the vaults.)<ref>

</ref> Silver was used in nickels during the war to save that metal for use in steel alloys.<ref name=“worldwar2”>

</ref>

Occurrence and extraction

File:Silver - world production trend.svg

Silver is found in native form, as an alloy with gold (electrum), and in ores containing sulfur, arsenic, antimony or chlorine. Ores include argentite (Ag2S), chlorargyrite (AgCl) which includes horn silver, and pyrargyrite (Ag3SbS3). The principal sources of silver are the ores of copper, copper-nickel, lead, and lead-zinc obtained from Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, China, Australia, Chile, Poland and Serbia.<ref name=CRC/> Peru, Bolivia and Mexico have been mining silver since 1546, and are still major world producers. Top silver-producing mines are Cannington (Australia), Fresnillo (Mexico), San Cristobal (Bolivia), Antamina (Peru), Rudna (Poland), and Penasquito (Mexico).<ref name=“CPM Group”>

</ref> Top near-term mine development projects through 2015 are Pascua Lama (Chile), Navidad (Argentina), Jaunicipio (Mexico), Malku Khota (Bolivia),<ref>

</ref> and Hackett River (Canada).<ref name=“CPM Group” /> In Central Asia, Tajikistan is known to have some of the largest silver deposits in the world.<ref>

</ref>

The metal is primarily produced as a byproduct of electrolytic copper refining, gold, nickel, and zinc refining, and by application of the Parkes process on lead metal obtained from lead ores that contain small amounts of silver. Commercial-grade fine silver is at least 99.9% pure, and purities greater than 99.999% are available. In 2011, Mexico was the top producer of silver (4,500 tonnes or 19% of the world's total), closely followed by Peru (4,000 t) and China (4,000 t).<ref>Silver Statistics and Information, USGS</ref>

Price

As of 26 August 2013, the price of silver is US$773 per kilogram (US$24.04 per troy ounce<ref>Latest Silver News. kitcosilver.com</ref>). This equates to approximately 1/58 the price of gold. The ratio has varied from 1/15 to 1/100 in the past 100 years.

Physical silver bullion prices are higher than the paper prices, with premiums increasing when demand is high and local shortages occur.<ref>Will Precious Metal Premiums One Day Trump the Spot Price? – International Business Times. Ibtimes.com (18 May 2012). Retrieved on 2012-05-28.</ref>

In 1980, the silver price rose to a peak for modern times of US$49.45&nbsp;per&nbsp;troy ounce (ozt) due to market manipulation of Nelson Bunker Hunt and Herbert Hunt. Inflation-adjusted to 2012, this is approximately US$138 per troy ounce. Some time after Silver Thursday, the price was back to $10/ozt.<ref>

</ref> From 2001 to 2010, the price moved from $4.37 to $20.19 (average London US$/oz).<ref name=“Silver Institute”>

</ref> According to the Silver Institute, silver's recent gains have greatly stemmed from a rise in investor interest and an increase in fabrication demand.<ref name=“Silver Institute”/> In late April 2011, silver reached an all-time high of $49.76/ozt.

In earlier times, silver has commanded much higher prices. In the early 15th century, the price of silver is estimated to have surpassed $1,200 per ounce, based on 2011 dollars.<ref>Live Silver Prices, Silver Bullion Prices & 650 Years of Silver Prices. Goldinfo.net. Retrieved on 2 May 2011.</ref> The discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World during the succeeding centuries has been stated as a cause for its price to have diminished greatly.

The price of silver is important in Judaic law. The lowest fiscal amount a Jewish court, or Beth Din, can convene to adjudicate a case over is a shova pruta (value of a Babylonian pruta coin).

This is fixed at

of pure, unrefined silver, at market price. In a Jewish tradition, still continuing today, on the first birthday of a first-born son, the parents pay the price of five pure-silver coins to a Kohen (priest). Today, the Israel mint fixes the coins at

of silver. The Kohen will often give those silver coins back as a gift for the child to inherit.<ref>Living Judaism: the complete guide to Jewish belief, tradition, Wayne D. Dosick – 1995 “The price was set at five shekalim (the plural of shekel, the monetary unit of the time) for each of the 273 extra firstborn (Numbers 3:47). The money was given to Aaron, the High Priest, the head of the tribe of Levi.”</ref>

Human exposure and consumption

Silver plays no known natural biological role in humans, and possible health effects of silver are a disputed subject. Silver itself is not toxic to humans, but most silver salts are. In large doses, silver and compounds containing it can be absorbed into the circulatory system and become deposited in various body tissues, leading to argyria, which results in a blue-grayish pigmentation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Argyria is rare, and although, so far as known, this condition does not otherwise harm a person's health, it is disfiguring and usually permanent. Mild forms of Argyria are sometimes mistaken for cyanosis.<ref name=CRC/>

Monitoring exposure

Overexposure to silver can occur in workers in the metallurgical industry, persons taking silver-containing dietary supplements, patients who have received silver sulfadiazine treatment, and individuals who accidentally or intentionally ingest silver salts. Silver concentrations in whole blood, plasma, serum, or urine may be measured to monitor for safety in exposed workers, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims, or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdosage.<ref>Baselt, R. (2008) Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, pp. 1429–1431, ISBN 0-9626523-7-7.</ref>

Use in food

Silver is used in food coloring; it has the E174 designation and is approved in the European Union.

The safety of silver for use in food is disputed.<ref name=“latimes”>

</ref> Traditional Indian dishes sometimes include the use of decorative silver foil known as vark,<ref name=“ss”>

</ref> and in various cultures, silver dragée are used to decorate cakes, cookies, and other dessert items.<ref name=“latimes”/> The use of silver as a food additive is not approved in the United States.

See also

References

External links

silver.txt · Last modified: 2019/12/05 08:24 (external edit)