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There are many reasons to “Vote with Your Feet” and move from corrupt, statist, liberal-Democrat, high-crime Nanny States to a low-population-density, extremely low-crime, limited government, libertarian, Constitution-loving, Pro-Second-Amendment, Patriotic, moral-conservative, God-fearing, safe-haven refuge in the American Redoubt of Idaho - Montana - Wyoming - Eastern Oregon - Eastern Washington - Northern Utah

Vote with your feet by moving ( to the libertarian safe refuge of the “American Redoubt” in Idaho - Montana - Wyoming - Eastern Oregon - Eastern Washington - Northern Utah or the Texas Redoubt or the Tennessee Cumberland Redoubt ( for more Bill of Rights freedom, especially Second Amendment gun rights — see

for state rankings,,, podcast, podcast by a conservative black Catholic Redoubter.

Sadly, the beautiful state of California is now a lost cause politically. But still keep fighting to restore her greatness.

NRA Life Member; also member of of America,, Second Amendment Foundation,,,,,,, Member Support Brigade, the Wolf Pack at, Permaculture Homesteader

American Redoubt Pages:

What exactly is the American Redoubt? See for more details from James Wesley Rawles, whose description of our Redoubt many of us wholeheartedly support.

We are “Prepared Individuals Living in Uncertain Times” is the motto of James Wesley Rawles

We Vote-with-our-Feet and have prepared “For when times get tough, or even if they don't” - the motto of Jack Spirko's SurvivalPodcast (

One could say that the American Redoubt was “founded” when Montana became a State of these United States of America on November 8, 1889, just 1 year before Idaho and Wyoming.

For those who are more attached to the East Coast and can't easily migrate to the American Redoubt in the Intermountain-West, we recommend the blog of the inspirational M.D. Creekmore who posted Joel M. Skousen, Author, Strategic Relocation North American Guide to Safe Places, on the Tennessee Cumberland Plateau solution to the “The East Coast Retreat Dilemma”:

“As a relocation specialist and designer, I found safe retreat locations and helped clients develop high security homes in every state of the union and you can too. The concept that anyone caught East of the Mississippi River is doomed is only partially valid and highly exaggerated. You can achieve a significantly higher level of safety going beyond the Appalachians to the high plateau regions of Tennessee and Kentucky. This massive and relatively unpopulated area is called the Cumberland Plateau—most of which falls within the state of Tennessee.” Joel M. Skousen ( is a relocation specialist and author of “Strategic Relocation North American Guide to Safe Places.”

Snippet from Wikipedia: Encryption

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding information. This process converts the original representation of the information, known as plaintext, into an alternative form known as ciphertext. Only authorized parties can decipher a ciphertext back to plaintext and access the original information. Encryption does not itself prevent interference but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, but, for a well-designed encryption scheme, considerable computational resources and skills are required. An authorized recipient can easily decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients but not to unauthorized users. Historically, various forms of encryption have been used to aid in cryptography. Early encryption techniques were often utilized in military messaging. Since then, new techniques have emerged and become commonplace in all areas of modern computing.

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that only authorized parties can read it.<ref>“Encryption Basics | EFF Surveillance Self-Defense Project.” Encryption Basics | EFF Surveillance Self-Defense Project. Surveillance Self-Defense Project, n.d. Web. 06 Nov. 2013. <>.</ref> Encryption doesn't prevent hacking but it reduces the likelihood that the hacker will be able to read the data that is encrypted.<ref name=Goldreich>Goldreich, Oded. Foundations of Cryptography: Volume 2, Basic Applications. Vol. 2. Cambridge university press, 2004.</ref>

In an encryption scheme, the message or information (referred to as plaintext) is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, turning it into an unreadable ciphertext (ibid.). This is usually done with the use of an encryption key, which specifies how the message is to be encoded. Any adversary that can see the ciphertext should not be able to determine anything about the original message. An authorized party, however, is able to decode the ciphertext using a decryption algorithm, that usually requires a secret decryption key, that adversaries do not have access to. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually needs a key-generation algorithm to randomly produce keys.

Kinds of encryption

Symmetric key encryption

In Symmetric-key schemes, the encryption and decryption keys are the same. Thus communicating parties must agree on a secret key before they wish to communicate.

Public key encryption


In public-key encryption schemes, the encryption key is published for anyone to use and encrypt messages. However, only the receiving party has access to the decryption key and is capable of reading the encrypted messages.<ref>Bellare, Mihir. “Public-Key Encryption in a Multi-user Setting: Security Proofs and Improvements.” Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2000. Page 1.</ref> Public-key encryption is a relatively recent invention: historically, all encryption schemes have been symmetric-key (also called private-key) schemes.<ref name=Goldreich />

One of the earliest public key encryption applications was called Pretty Good Privacy (PGP). It was written in 1991 by Phil Zimmermann and was purchased by Symantec in 2010.<ref>


How encryption is used

Encryption has long been used by militaries and governments to facilitate secret communication. It is now commonly used in protecting information within many kinds of civilian systems. For example, the Computer Security Institute reported that in 2007, 71% of companies surveyed utilized encryption for some of their data in transit, and 53% utilized encryption for some of their data in storage.<ref>Robert Richardson, 2008 CSI Computer Crime and Security Survey at</ref> Encryption can be used to protect data “at rest”, such as files on computers and storage devices (e.g. USB flash drives). In recent years there have been numerous reports of confidential data such as customers' personal records being exposed through loss or theft of laptops or backup drives. Encrypting such files at rest helps protect them should physical security measures fail. Digital rights management systems which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering (see also copy protection) is another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest.

Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines. There have been numerous reports of data in transit being intercepted in recent years.<ref>Fiber Optic Networks Vulnerable to Attack, Information Security Magazine, November 15, 2006, Sandra Kay Miller</ref> Encrypting data in transit also helps to secure it as it is often difficult to physically secure all access to networks.

Message verification

Encryption, by itself, can protect the confidentiality of messages, but other techniques are still needed to protect the integrity and authenticity of a message; for example, verification of a message authentication code (MAC) or a digital signature. Standards and cryptographic software and hardware to perform encryption are widely available, but successfully using encryption to ensure security may be a challenging problem. A single slip-up in system design or execution can allow successful attacks. Sometimes an adversary can obtain unencrypted information without directly undoing the encryption. See, e.g., traffic analysis, TEMPEST, or Trojan horse.

Digital signature and encryption must be applied at message creation time (i.e. on the same device it has been composed) to avoid tampering. Otherwise any node between the sender and the encryption agent could potentially tamper it. It should be noted that encrypting at the time of creation only adds security if the encryption device itself has not been tampered with.

See also


Further reading

  • Kahn, David , The Codebreakers - The Story of Secret Writing (ISBN 0-684-83130-9) (1967)
  • Preneel, Bart, “Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT 2000”, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2000, ISBN 978-3-540-67517-4
  • Sinkov, Abraham, Elementary Cryptanalysis: A Mathematical Approach, Mathematical Association of America, 1966. ISBN 0-88385-622-0
encryption.txt · Last modified: 2019/12/05 08:21 (external edit)