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There are many reasons to “Vote with Your Feet” and move from corrupt, statist, liberal-Democrat, high-crime Nanny States to a low-population-density, extremely low-crime, limited government, libertarian, Constitution-loving, Pro-Second-Amendment, Patriotic, moral-conservative, God-fearing, safe-haven refuge in the American Redoubt of Idaho - Montana - Wyoming - Eastern Oregon - Eastern Washington - Northern Utah


Vote with your feet by moving (http://WalkingToFreedom.com) to the libertarian safe refuge of the “American Redoubt” in Idaho - Montana - Wyoming - Eastern Oregon - Eastern Washington - Northern Utah or the Texas Redoubt or the Tennessee Cumberland Redoubt (http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-of-the-east) for more Bill of Rights freedom, especially Second Amendment gun rights — see

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http://www.RevRealty.us,

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RadioFreeRedoubt.com podcast,

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Sadly, the beautiful state of California is now a lost cause politically. But still keep fighting to restore her greatness.

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What exactly is the American Redoubt? See https://www.survivalblog.com/redoubt.html for more details from James Wesley Rawles, whose description of our Redoubt many of us wholeheartedly support.

We are “Prepared Individuals Living in Uncertain Times” is the motto of James Wesley Rawles SurvivalBlog.com.

We Vote-with-our-Feet and have prepared “For when times get tough, or even if they don't” - the motto of Jack Spirko's SurvivalPodcast (www.thesurvivalpodcast.com)

One could say that the American Redoubt was “founded” when Montana became a State of these United States of America on November 8, 1889, just 1 year before Idaho and Wyoming.

For those who are more attached to the East Coast and can't easily migrate to the American Redoubt in the Intermountain-West, we recommend the blog of the inspirational M.D. Creekmore who posted Joel M. Skousen, Author, Strategic Relocation North American Guide to Safe Places, on the Tennessee Cumberland Plateau solution to the “The East Coast Retreat Dilemma”: http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-of-the-east http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/news-eastern-redoubt-tennessee-cumberland-plateau/

“As a relocation specialist and designer, I found safe retreat locations and helped clients develop high security homes in every state of the union and you can too. The concept that anyone caught East of the Mississippi River is doomed is only partially valid and highly exaggerated. You can achieve a significantly higher level of safety going beyond the Appalachians to the high plateau regions of Tennessee and Kentucky. This massive and relatively unpopulated area is called the Cumberland Plateau—most of which falls within the state of Tennessee.” Joel M. Skousen (https://joelskousen.com/strategic.html) is a relocation specialist and author of “Strategic Relocation North American Guide to Safe Places.” https://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-east-aka-cumberland-plateau-ot-tennessee/

colorado

Table of Contents

Jefferson Franklin

#MAGA #AmericaFirst

Most Well Known Prepper Patriots

See also

Colorado became the 38th state of the United States with its admission to Statehood on August 1, 1876. It is known for its skiing and snowboarding resorts, such as Vail and Aspen in the Rocky Mountains, which run north-south through the state. In the mountains and plains the winters are usually very cold and produce many snowstorms. However, along the front range (where Denver, Boulder, Colorado Springs, Pueblo, Greeley and most large cities are located), the weather is more mild and is very sunny.

The United States Air Force Academy and NORAD are located in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Elevation

A number of Colorado cities are located near the Front Range of the Rockies, at elevations of around 5,000 feet. Denver, its capital and largest city, is sometimes called “The Mile-High City”, because the official elevation of Denver City Hall is exactly 5,280 feet.

Mount Elbert is the highest point in Colorado, at an elevation of 14,440 feet. It is one of over 500 mountains in the state that exceed 13,000 feet. The entire state lies at an elevation over 3,000 feet.

At elevations of 5,000 feet, the air is thinner and air pressure is lower than at sea level. It is not unusual for visitors to feel lightheaded for a day or two until they adjust (but actual altitude sickness is very rare). At this altitude, skies are a clearer, brighter blue than at sea level. At that elevation, water boils at only 203 degrees F, compared to 212 degrees at sea level, so cooking recipes have to be modified.

History

The Native American (Indian) groups indigenous to Colorado were the Anasazi and Utes who lived in the mountainous regions, and several tribes who lived in the flatlands and near the rivers at various times including the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche, Pawnee and Sioux. <ref> http://www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/archives/history/histfaqs.htm </ref>

It is believed that in 1541 the Spanish explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado was the first European on record to have entered the land that is now Colorado. <ref> http://www.colorado.gov/ </ref> The Spanish called the area Colorado because of its red colored earth.<ref> The name is also sometimes credited to a Jesuit, Francisco Garcia, who in 1776 named the land after the Colorado River. Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (Oxford 2005) p 116</ref>

The United States acquired part of what is now Colorado in 1803 through the Louisiana Purchase. In 1848 Mexico ceded claims to the rest of it. There were no European settlers or forts. Before gaining statehood, Colorado was part of the Nebraska, Utah, Kansas, and New Mexico Territories, and in 1861 Congress created the Territory of Colorado. The state now encompasses 104,247 square miles.

The state is bordered by Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Utah. The population of Colorado is approximately 4,750,000.

Official Symbols

Colorado has many official state symbols including:<ref>Colorado Department of Personnel and Adminstration Website</ref>

  • State Bird: Lark Bunting
  • State Animal: Big Horn Sheep
  • State Fish: Greenback Cutthroat Trout
  • State Tree: Colorado Blue Spruce
  • State Folk Dance: Square Dance
  • State Fossil: Stegosaurus
  • State Insect: Colorado Hairstreak Butterfly
  • State Song: “Where the Columbines Grow” and “Rocky Mountain High”

Notable Coloradoans

Elected officials

Federal

Statewide

See also

Bibliography

  • Abbott, Carl, Stephen J. Leonard, and David McComb. Colorado: A History of the Centennial State. 2nd ed 1982.
  • Athearn, Robert G. The Coloradans. 1976. popular history
  • Athearn, Robert G. Rebel of the Rockies: A History of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. 1962.
  • Baker, James H., and Leroy R. Hafen, eds. History of Colorado. 5 vol State Historical Society of Colorado, 1927, with many short biographical sketches
  • Bancroft, Hubert Howe, History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, 1540-1888 (1890) 828 pages; famous classic; online edition
  • Eugene H. Berwanger. The Rise of the Centennial State: Colorado Territory, 1861-76, (2007) 208 pages
  • Cassels, E. Steve. The Archeology of Colorado. Boulder: Johnson Books, 1983
  • Cronin, Thomas E. and Robert D. Loevy. Colorado Politics & Government: Governing the Centennial State, (1993) online edition
  • Ellis, Elmer. Henry Moore Teller: Defender of the West. 1941.
  • Ellis, Richard N., and Duane A. Smith. Colorado: A History in Photographs. 1991.
  • Gulliford, Andrew. Boomtown Blues: Colorado Oil Shale, 1885-1985. 1989.
  • Hafen, Le Roy R. Colorado: The Story of a Western Commonwealth. 1933.
  • Hogan, Richard. Class and Community in Frontier Colorado. 1990.
  • Lamm, Richard D., and Duane A. Smith. Pioneers and Politicians: 10 Colorado Governors in Profile. 1981. popular
  • Lorch, Robert S. Colorado's Government. 5th ed. 1991. textbook
  • Ormes, Robert M. Guide to the Colorado Mountains. 7th ed. 1979.
  • Parsons, Eugene. The Making of Colorado: A Historical Sketch (1908) 324 pages online edition
  • Rohrbough, Malcolm J. Aspen: The History of a Silver Mining Town, 1879-1893. 1986. scholarly study
  • Scamehorn, Lee. High Altitude Energy: A History of Fossil Fuels in Colorado (2002) online edition
  • Scamehorn, Lee. Mill & Mine: The Cf&I in the Twentieth Century (1992) online edition
  • Schulte, Steven C. Wayne Aspinall and the Shaping of the American West (2002) online edition
  • Smith, Duane A. Henry M. Teller: Colorado's Grand Old Man, 2002 online edition
  • Sprague, Marshall. Money Mountain: The Story of Cripple Creek Gold (1979) online edition
  • Ubbelohde, Carl, Maxine Benson, and Duane Smith. A Colorado History. 6th ed. 1988. textbook
  • Wright, James Edward. The Politics of Populism: Dissent in Colorado. 1974. on 1890s

Primary sources

  • Ubbelohde, Carl, ed. A Colorado Reader (2nd ed 1964)
  • Fossett, Frank. Colorado: A Historical, Descriptive and Statistical Work on the Rocky Mountain Gold and Silver Mining Region (1878) 470 pages online edition
  • Fossett, Frank. Colorado, Its Gold and Silver Mines: Farms and Stock Ranges, and Health and Pleasure Resorts (1880), 1184 pages online edition
  • Parsons, Eugene. A Guidebook to Colorado (1911) 390 pages online edition

[[Retreat Potential Rank]]ing Analysis by [[James Wesley Rawles]]

Population: 4.3 million. Population Density: 41.3 per square mile (Rank 8 of JWR’s top 19 states). Area: 104,000 square miles (rank 8 of 50). Average car insurance cost: $881/yr. (rank 11 of 50). Average home insurance cost: $571/yr. (rank 12 of 50). Crime Safety Ranking: 26 of 50.

<ref>Boston T. Party, Boston's Gun Bible, Chapter 34 Gun Laws in the 50 States and DC, Common law copyright, Wyoming American Redoubt - Printed in the united states of America without any 4 USC §§ 105-110 Federal area or State: Javelin Press 1997-2008: pp. 34/3-8. ISBN 1-888766-06-9</ref>

Per capita income: $32,434 (rank 7 of 50). ACT & SAT Scores Ranking: 15 of 50.

<ref name=“survivalblog”> 238 word quotation: Fair Use Source: Rawles, James Wesley. Rawles on Retreats and Relocation. 1st. Clearwater, Idaho: The Clearwater Press, 2007. p. 87. Print. see James Wesley Rawles on Fair Use</ref><ref> http://www.survivalblog.com/retreatareas.html Recommended Retreat Areas accessed April 11, 2014</ref>

Plusses

A low “total tax burden” of 8.4%. Has a high rating in “education freedom” for home schooling (ranked #8 of 50). <ref name=“survivalblog”/>

Minuses

Fairly high population density (by western U.S. standards.) The emerging Nanny State mentality is also troubling. Parts of the state are recommended.

JWR’s Combined Retreat Potential Ranking: 10 of 19.<ref name=“survivalblog”/>

[[NRA Grades]] Rankings of the State

[[U.S. Senate]]

[[U.S. House of Representatives]]

Incremental Gun-Grabbing of the [[Police state|Nanny State]]

Liberals and socialists support “common sense” measures - a “good first step” of the Nanny State. To a citizen-prepper-patriot and to the Bill of Rights, this is “death by a thousand paper cuts”.

This Second Amendment Foundation video is the formal response to Hollywood's Demand a Plan gun-grabbing propaganda video. The video shows one of the main differences between liberal gun control Nanny states (Blue states) and conservative and/or libertarian Second Amendment-supporting “free states” (Red states). This video shows why we vote with our feet:

Likely World War Three Target Structures

See Also

References

<references/>

Find the corresponding Survival Podcast episode

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States of the United States Western United States

Gun control Liberal Blue state Colorado

Snippet from Wikipedia: Colorado

Colorado ( (listen), other variants) is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado is 5,758,736 as of 2019, an increase of 14.5% since the 2010 United States Census.

The region has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13,000 years, with the Lindenmeier Site containing artifacts dating from approximately 11200 BC to 3000 BC; the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains was a major migration route for early peoples who spread throughout the Americas. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado ("Red River") for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains. The Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, and on August 1, 1876, U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence.

Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, and touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners. Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, forests, high plains, mesas, canyons, plateaus, rivers and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States and is one of the Mountain States.

Denver is the capital and most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is occasionally used.

|Former = Territory of Colorado
|Capital = [[Denver]]
|LargestCity = capital
|LargestMetro = [[Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area]]
|Governor = [[John Hickenlooper]] [[Democratic Party (United States)|(D)]] (2011–)
|Lieutenant Governor = [[Joseph A. Garcia]] (D) (2011–)
|Legislature = [[Colorado General Assembly|General Assembly]]
|Upperhouse = [[Colorado Senate|Senate]] D-18, [[Republican Party (United States)|R]]-17
|Lowerhouse = [[Colorado House of Representatives|House of Representatives]] D-37, R-28
|Senators = [[United States Senate Class 2|2]]. [[Mark Udall]] (D) (2009–)
[[United States Senate Class 3|3]]. [[Michael Bennet]] (D) (2009–) |Representative = [[Colorado's 1st congressional district|1]]. [[Diana DeGette]] (D) (1997–)
[[Colorado's 2nd congressional district|2]]. [[Jared Polis]] (D) (2009–)
[[Colorado's 3rd congressional district|3]]. [[Scott Tipton]] (R) (2011–)
[[Colorado's 4th congressional district|4]]. [[Cory Gardner]] (R) (2011–)
[[Colorado's 5th congressional district|5]]. [[Doug Lamborn]] (R) (2007–)
[[Colorado's 6th congressional district|6]]. [[Mike Coffman]] (R) (2009–)
[[Colorado's 7th congressional district|7]]. [[Ed Perlmutter]] (D) (2007–) |PostalAbbreviation = CO |TradAbbreviation = Colo. |AreaRank = 8th |TotalArea = 269,837 |TotalAreaUS = 104,094 |LandArea = 268,875 |LandAreaUS = 103,718 |WaterArea = 962 |WaterAreaUS = 376 |PCWater = 0.36% |PopRank = 22nd |2010Pop = 5,187,582 (2012 estimate) |Demonym = Coloradan |DensityRank = 37th |2000Density = 19.0 |2000DensityUS = 49.3 |MedianHouseholdIncome = 57,685http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/08000.html |IncomeRank = 11th |AdmittanceOrder = 38th state |AdmittanceDate = August 1, 1876 |TimeZone = [[Mountain Time Zone|Mountain]]: [[Mountain Standard Time|UTC-07]]/[[Mountain Daylight Time|UTC-06]] |Latitude = 37°N to 41°N |Longitude = 102°03'W to 109°03'W |Width = 612 |WidthUS = 380 |Length = 451 |LengthUS = 280 |HighestPoint = [[Mount Elbert]]{{cite web|url= http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html |title=Elevations and Distances in the United States|publisher = [[United States Geological Survey]]|year=2001|accessdate=October 21, 2011}}Elevation adjusted to [[North American Vertical Datum of 1988]].The summit of [[Mount Elbert]] is the highest point of the [[Rocky Mountains]] of North America. in [[Lake County, Colorado|Lake County]] |HighestElev = 4401.2 |HighestElevUS = 14,440 |MeanElev = 2070 |MeanElevUS = 6,800 |LowestPoint = [[Arikaree River]] at the [[Kansas]] border |LowestElev = 1011 |LowestElevUS = 3,317 |ISOCode = US-CO |Website = www.colorado.gov
}} Colorado (

,<ref>

</ref> or

<ref>

</ref>) is a U.S. state encompassing most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. Colorado is part of the Western United States, the Southwestern United States, and the Mountain States. Colorado is the 8th most extensive and the 22nd most populous of the 50 United States. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Colorado was 5,187,582 on July 1, 2012, an increase of +3.15% since the 2010 United States Census.<ref name=PopEstUS>

</ref>

The state was named for the Colorado River, which Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy (

) silt the river carried from the mountains. On August 1, 1876, U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed a proclamation admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the ”Centennial State“ because it became a state in the centennial year of the United States Declaration of Independence.

Colorado is bordered by the northwest state of Wyoming to the north, the Midwest states of Nebraska and Kansas to the northeast and east, on the south by New Mexico and Oklahoma, on the west by Utah, and Arizona to the southwest. The four states of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona meet at one common point known as the Four Corners, which is known as the heart of the American Southwest. Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, forests, high plains, mesas, canyons, plateaus, rivers, and desert lands.

Denver is the capital and the most highly populated city of Colorado. Residents of the state are properly known as ”Coloradans“, although the archaic term “Coloradoan” is still used.<ref name=statestyle>Writers Style Guide, Colorado State University. Retrieved January 19, 2009.</ref><ref name=Coloradan>

</ref>

Geography

Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, ranging from alpine mountains, arid plains and deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons, sandstone and granite rock formations, rivers, lakes, and lush forests. The borders of Colorado were originally defined to be lines of latitude and longitude, making its shape a latitude-longitude* quadrangle which stretches from 37°N to 41°N latitude and from 102°03'W to 109°03'W longitude (25°W to 32°W from the Washington Meridian).<ref name=Colorado_Enabling_Act/> Colorado, Wyoming and Utah are the only states which have boundaries defined solely by lines of latitude and longitude. When placing the border markers for the Territory of Colorado, minor surveying errors resulted in several <!– nearly imperceptible –>small kinks, most notably along the border with the Territory of Utah. Once agreed upon by the federal, state, and territorial governments, those surveyors' benchmarks became the legal boundaries for the Colorado Territory, kinks and all.<ref>

</ref>

near Aspen, Colorado]]

]]

Mountains

The summit of Mount Elbert at

in elevation in Lake County is the highest point of Colorado and the Rocky Mountains.<ref name=Mount_Elbert>

</ref> Colorado is the only U.S. state that lies entirely above

elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County, Colorado, and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at

elevation. This point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state,<ref name=USGS>

</ref><ref>

</ref> is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia.

Plains

A little over one third of the area of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Colorado at elevations ranging from roughly

.<ref>

</ref> The Colorado plains are usually thought of as prairies, but actually they have many patches of deciduous forests, buttes, and canyons, much like the high plains in New Mexico as well. Eastern Colorado is presently mainly covered in farmland, along with small farming villages and towns. Precipitation is fair, averaging from

annually.<ref name=ccc>

</ref> Corn, wheat, hay, soybeans, and oats are all typical crops, and most of the villages and towns in this region boast both a water tower and a grain elevator. As well as the farming of crops, Eastern Colorado has a good deal of livestock raising, such as at cattle ranches and hog farms and irrigation water is available from the South Platte, the Arkansas River, and a few other streams, and also from subterranean sources, including artesian wells. However, heavy use of ground water from wells for irrigation has caused underground water reserves to decline.

Peaks west of Denver]]

Front range

Most of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne, Wyoming, and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is partially protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado. The only other significant population centers are at Grand Junction and Durango in western and southwestern Colorado.

Continental Divide

The Continental Divide extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. Drainage water west of the Continental Divide flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California.

Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large so-called “parks” or high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado. The North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Wyoming and Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, which is drained by the Colorado River. The South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River.

Southern region

in southern Colorado]] In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located. The valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, and consists of large desert lands that eventually run into the mountains. The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico, Mexico, and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the San Luis Valley lies the Wet Mountain Valley. These basins, particularly the San Luis Valley, lie along the Rio Grande Rift, a major geological formation of the Rocky Mountains, and its branches.

Peaks

To the west of the Great Plains of Colorado rises the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Notable peaks of the Rocky Mountains include Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak, and the Spanish Peaks near Walsenburg, in southern Colorado. This area drains to the east and the southeast, ultimately either via the Mississippi River or the Rio Grande into the Gulf of Mexico.

]]

The Rocky Mountains within Colorado contain about 54 peaks that are

or higher in elevation above sea level, known as fourteeners.<ref>

</ref> These mountains are largely covered with trees such as conifers and aspens up to the tree line, at an elevation of about

in southern Colorado to about

in northern Colorado. Above this only alpine vegetation grows. Only small parts of the Colorado Rockies are snow-covered year round.

Much of the alpine snow melts by mid-August with the exception of a few snowcapped peaks and a few small glaciers. The Colorado Mineral Belt, stretching from the San Juan Mountains in the southwest to Boulder and Central City on the front range, contains most of the historic gold- and silver-mining districts of Colorado. Mount Elbert is the highest summit of the Rocky Mountains. The 30 highest major summits of the Rocky Mountains of North America all lie within the state.

near Montrose]]

in western Colorado]]

in western Colorado]]

near Glenwood Springs]]

Colorado Western Slope

The Western Slope of Colorado is drained by the Colorado River and its tributaries (primarily the Green River and the San Juan River), or by evaporation in its arid areas. Prominent in the southwestern area of the Western Slope is the Grand Mesa and the high San Juan Mountains, a rugged mountain range, and to the west of the San Juan Mountains, the Colorado Plateau, a high arid region that borders Southern Utah. The Colorado River flows through Glenwood Canyon and then through an arid valley made up of desert from Rifle to Parachute, through the desert canyon of De Beque Canyon, and into the arid desert of Grand Valley, of which the city of Grand Junction is located.

The city of Grand Junction, Colorado, is the largest city on the Western Slope, Grand Junction and Durango are the only major centers of television broadcasting west of the Continental Divide in Colorado. Most mountain resort communities publish daily newspapers. Higher education on the Western Slope can be found at Colorado Mesa University in Grand Junction, Western State College of Colorado in Gunnison, Fort Lewis College in Durango, Adams State University in Alamosa and Colorado Mountain College in Glenwood Springs and Steamboat Springs.

Grand Junction is located along Interstate 70, the only major highway of Western Colorado. Grand Junction is also along the major railroad of the Western Slope, the Union Pacific, which also provides the tracks for Amtrak's California Zephyr passenger train, which crosses the Rocky Mountains between Denver and Grand Junction via a route on which there are no continuous highways.

To the southeast of Grand Junction is the Grand Mesa, said to be the world's largest flat-topped mountain. Other towns of the Western Slope include Glenwood Springs with its resort hot springs, and the ski resorts of Aspen, Breckenridge, Vail, Crested Butte, Steamboat Springs, and Telluride.

The northwestern corner of Colorado is a sparsely populated region, and it contains part of the noted Dinosaur National Monument, which is not only a paleontological area, but is also a scenic area of rocky hills, canyons, arid desert, and streambeads. Here, the Green River briefly crosses over into Colorado.

From west to east, the land of Colorado consists of desert lands, desert plateaus, alpine mountains, National Forests, relatively flat grasslands, scattered forests, buttes, and canyons in the western edge of the Great Plains. The famous Pikes Peak is located just west of Colorado Springs. Its isolated peak is visible from nearly the Kansas border on clear days, and also far to the north and the south.<ref>

</ref>

The desert lands in Colorado are located in and around areas such as, the Pueblo, Canon City, Florence, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Cortez, Canyon of the Ancients National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, Ute Mountain, Delta, Grand Junction, Colorado National Monument, and other areas surrounding the Uncompahgre Plateau and Uncompahgre National Forest.

, with Ute Mountain in the distance]] Colorado is one of four states in the United States that share a common geographic point the Four Corners together with Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. At this intersection, it is possible to stand in four states at once.

Climate

The climate of Colorado is more complex than states outside of the Mountain States region. Unlike most other states, southern Colorado is not always warmer than northern Colorado. Most of Colorado is made up of mountains, foothills, high plains, and desert lands. Mountains and surrounding valleys greatly affect local climate.

As a general rule, with an increase in elevation comes a decrease in temperature and an increase in precipitation. Northeast, east, and southeast Colorado are mostly the high plains, while Northern Colorado is a mix of high plains, foothills, and mountains. Northwest and west Colorado are predominantly mountainous, with some desert lands mixed in. Southwest and southern Colorado are a complex mixture of desert and mountain areas.

Eastern Plains

of wheat growing in Yuma County]]

The climate of the Eastern Plains is semi-arid (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with low humidity and moderate precipitation, usually from

annually. The area is known for its abundant sunshine and cool clear nights, which give this area a great average diurnal temperature range. The difference between the highs of the day and the cool of nights can be considerable as warmth dissipates to the space during clear nights, the heat radiation not being trapped by clouds. Denver is rumored to have one of the highest number of annual sunshine hours and clear days of major cities in the United States, although this has proven to be false.<ref>http://blogs.denverpost.com/weather/2012/01/03/colorado-sunshine-not-all-its-hyped-up-to-be/110/</ref>

In summer, this area can have many days above

and often

.<ref name=“Climate of Colorado”>DRI.edu Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved October 24, 2006.</ref> On the plains, the winter lows usually range from 25 °F (−3.5 °C) to −10 °F (−23 °C). About 75% of the precipitation falls within the growing season, from April to September, but this area is very prone to droughts. Most of the precipitation comes from thunderstorms, which can be severe, and from major snowstorms that occur in the winter, and early spring. Otherwise, winters tend to be mostly dry and cold.<ref name=“Denver-Colorado-United-States-of-America”>

</ref>

In much of the region, March is the snowiest month. April and May are normally the rainiest months, while April is the wettest month overall. The Front Range cities closer to the mountains tend to be warmer in the winter due to chinook winds which warm the area, sometimes bringing temperatures of

or higher in the winter.<ref name=“Denver-Colorado-United-States-of-America” /> The average July temperature is

in the morning and

in the afternoon. The average January temperature is

in the morning and

in the afternoon, although variation between consecutive days can be 40&nbsp;°F (22&nbsp;°C).<!–this is a temperature difference, so the convert template shouldn't be used here–>

West of the plains and foothills

West of the plains and foothills, the weather of Colorado is much less uniform. Even places a few miles apart can experience entirely different weather depending on the topography of the area. Most valleys have a semi-arid climate, which becomes an alpine climate at higher elevations. Humid microclimates also exist in some areas. Generally, the wettest season in western Colorado is winter while June is the driest month.

The mountains have mild summers with many days of high temperatures between

and

, although thunderstorms can cause sudden but brief drops in temperature. The winters bring abundant, powdery snowfall to the mountains with plenty of sunshine in between major storms. The western slope has high summer temperatures similar to those found on the plains, while the winters tend to be slightly cooler due to the lack of warming winds common to the plains and Front Range. Other areas in the west have their own unique climate.

Extreme weather

Extreme weather changes are common in Colorado, although the majority of extreme weather occurs in the least populated areas of the state. Thunderstorms are common east of the Continental divide in the spring and summer yet usually brief. Hail is a common sight in the mountains east of the divide and in the northwest part of the state. The Eastern Plains have had some of the biggest hail storms in North America.<ref name=ccc/>

The Eastern Plains are part of the extreme western portion of Tornado Alley, some damaging tornadoes in the Eastern Plains include the 1990 Limon F3 tornado and the 2008 Windsor EF3 tornado, which devastated the small town.<ref>

</ref> The plains are also susceptible to occasional floods, which are caused both by thunderstorms and by the rapid melting of snow in the mountains during warm weather. Denver's record in 1901 for the number of consecutive days above

was broken during the summer of 2008. The new record of 24 consecutive days surpassed the previous record by almost a week.<ref>

</ref>

Much of Colorado is a very dry state averaging only

of precipitation per year statewide and rarely experiences a time when some portion of the state is not in some degree of drought.<ref>

</ref> The lack of precipitation contributes to the severity of wildfires in the state such as the Hayman Fire, one of the largest wildfires in American history, and the Fourmile Canyon Fire of 2010, which until the Waldo Canyon Fire of June 2012, and the Black Forest Fire approximately a year later, was the most destructive wildfire in Colorado's recorded history.

However, there are some of the mountainous regions of Colorado which receive a huge amount of moisture via winter snowfalls. The spring melts of these snows often cause great waterflows in such rivers as the Yampa River, the Grand River, the Colorado River, the Rio Grande, the Arkansas River, Cherry Creek, the North Platte River, and the South Platte River.

Water flowing out of the Colorado Rocky Mountains is a very significant source of water for the farms, towns, and cities of fellow southwest states of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, as well as midwest like Nebraska and Kansas, and also southern states like Oklahoma and Texas. A significant amount of water is also diverted for use in California; occasionally (formerly naturally and consistently) the flow of water reaches northern Mexico.

Records

The highest ambient air temperature ever recorded in Colorado was

on July 11, 1888, at Bennett. The lowest air temperature was

on February 1, 1985, at Maybell.<ref name=StateMaxTemps>

</ref><ref name=StateMinTemps>

</ref> <center>

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Colorado cities<ref>UStravelweather.com

</ref>

(°F) (°C)
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Alamosa 35/−2 <br> 2/−19 40/6 <br> 4/−14 51/17 <br> 11/−8 60/24 <br> 16/−4 70/33 <br> 21/1 79/41 <br> 26/5 83/47 <br> 28/8 80/46 <br> 27/8 73/37 <br> 23/3 62/25 <br> 17/−4 47/12 <br> 8/−11 36/1 <br> 2/−17
Colorado Springs 43/18 <br> 6/−8 45/20 <br> 7/−7 52/26 <br> 11/−3 60/33 <br> 16/1 69/43 <br> 21/6 79/51 <br> 26/11 85/57 <br> 29/14 82/56 <br> 28/13 75/47 <br> 24/8 63/36 <br> 17/2 51/25 <br> 11/−4 42/18 <br> 6/−8
Denver 44/19 <br> 7/−7 46/21 <br> 8/−6 54/27 <br> 12/−3 61/35 <br> 16/2 71/44 <br> 21/7 82/53 <br> 28/12 89/59 <br> 32/15 86/58 <br> 30/14 78/49 <br> 26/9 65/37 <br> 18/3 52/26 <br> 11/−3 43/18 <br> 6/−8
Grand Junction 38/18 <br> 3/−8 46/25 <br> 8/−4 57/32 <br> 14/0 66/39 <br> 19/4 76/48 <br> 24/9 88/57 <br> 31/14 94/64 <br> 34/18 90/62 <br> 32/17 81/53 <br> 27/12 67/41 <br> 19/5 51/29 <br> 11/−2 39/19 <br> 4/−7
Pueblo 47/14 <br> 8/−10 51/18 <br> 11/−8 60/26 <br> 16/−3 68/34 <br> 20/1 77/44 <br> 25/7 88/53 <br> 31/12 93/59 <br> 34/15 90/58 <br> 32/14 82/48 <br> 28/9 70/34 <br> 21/1 57/23 <br> 14/−5 46/14 <br> 8/−10

</center>

Earthquakes

Despite its mountainous terrain, Colorado is relatively quiescent seismically. The U.S. National Earthquake Information Center is located in Golden.

On August 22, 2011, a 5.3 magnitude earthquake occurred nine miles WSW of the city of Trinidad.<ref>http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsus/Maps/US2/36.38.-106.-104.php

</ref> No casualties and only small damage was reported. It was the second largest earthquake in Colorado. A magnitude 5.7 earthquake was recorded in 1973.<ref>

</ref>

History

at Mesa Verde as photographed by Gustaf Nordenskiöld in 1891.]]

The region that is today the state of Colorado has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13,000 years. The Lindenmeier Site in Larimer County contains artifacts dating from approximately 11200 BC to 3000 BC. The eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains was a major migration route that was important to the spread of early peoples throughout the Americas. The Ancient Pueblo Peoples lived in the valleys and mesas of the Colorado Plateau.<ref>”Genocide Wiped Out Native American Population “, Discovery News, September 20, 2010.</ref> The Ute Nation inhabited the mountain valleys of the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Western Rocky Mountains, even as far east as the Front Range of present day. The Apache and the Comanche also inhabited the Eastern and Southeastern portions of the state as well. The Arapaho Nation and the Cheyenne Nation moved west to hunt across the High Plains at times as well.

The United States acquired a territorial claim to the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains with the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803. This U.S. claim conflicted with the claim of Spain to the upper Arkansas River Basin as the exclusive trading zone of its colony of Santa Fé de Nuevo Méjico. Zebulon Pike led a U.S. Army reconnaissance expedition into the disputed region in 1806. Colonel Pike and his men were arrested by Spanish cavalrymen in the San Luis Valley the following February, taken to Chihuahua, and then expelled from Mexico the following July.

The United States relinquished its claim to all land south and west of the Arkansas River and south of 42nd parallel north and west of the 100th meridian west as part of its purchase of Florida from Spain with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. The treaty took effect February 22, 1821. Having settled its border with Spain, the United States admitted the southeastern portion of the Territory of Missouri to the Union as the state of Missouri on August 10, 1821. The remainder of the Missouri Territory, including what would become northeastern Colorado, became unorganized territory, and would remain so for 33 years over the question of slavery. After 11 years of war, Spain finally recognized the independence of Mexico with the Treaty of Córdoba signed on August 24, 1821. Mexico eventually ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1831. The Texian Revolt of 1835–1836 fomented a dispute between the United States and Mexico which eventually erupted into the Mexican-American War in 1846. Mexico surrendered its northern territory to the United States with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the conclusion of the war in 1848.

Most American settlers traveling overland west to the Oregon Country, the new goldfields of California, or the new Mormon settlements of Deseret in the Salt Lake Valley, avoided the rugged Southern Rocky Mountains, and instead followed the North Platte River and Sweetwater River to South Pass, the lowest crossing of the Continental Divide between the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Central Rocky Mountains. In 1849, the Mormons of the Salt Lake Valley organized the extralegal State of Deseret, claiming the entire Great Basin and all lands drained by the Green, Grand, and Colorado rivers. The federal government of the United States flatly refused to recognize the new Mormon government, because it was theocratic and sanctioned plural marriage. Instead, the Compromise of 1850 divided the Mexican Cession and the northwestern claims of Texas into a new state and two new territories, the state of California, the Territory of New Mexico, and the Territory of Utah. On April 9, 1851, Mexican American settlers from the area of Taos settled the village of San Luis, then in the New Mexico Territory, later to become Colorado's first permanent Euro-American settlement.

]]

In 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas persuaded the U.S. Congress to divide the unorganized territory east of the Continental Divide into two new organized territories, the Territory of Kansas and the Territory of Nebraska, and an unorganized southern region known as the Indian territory. Each new territory was to decide the fate of slavery within its boundaries, but this compromise merely served to fuel animosity between free soil and pro-slavery factions.

The gold seekers organized the Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson on August 24, 1859, but this new territory failed to secure approval from the Congress of the United States embroiled in the debate over slavery. The election of Abraham Lincoln for the President of the United States on November 6, 1860, led to the secession of nine southern slave states and the threat of civil war among the states. Seeking to augment the political power of the Union states, the Republican Party dominated Congress quickly admitted the eastern portion of the Territory of Kansas into the Union as the free State of Kansas on January 29, 1861, leaving the western portion of the Kansas Territory, and its gold-mining areas, as unorganized territory.

Territory act

, Utah, Kansas, and Nebraska before the creation of the Territory of Colorado]] Thirty days later on February 28, 1861, outgoing U.S. President James Buchanan signed an Act of Congress organizing the free Territory of Colorado.<ref name=ColoradoTerritory>

</ref> The original boundaries of Colorado remain unchanged today. The name Colorado was chosen because it was commonly believed that the Colorado River originated in the territory.<ref name=Colorado_River>Early explorers identified the Gunnison River in Colorado as the headwaters of the Colorado River. The Grand River in Colorado was later tentively identified as the primary headwaters of the river. Finally in 1916, E.C. LaRue, the Chief Hydrologist of the United States Geological Survey, identified the Green River in southwestern Wyoming as the proper headwaters of the actual, overall Colorado River.</ref> In 1776, Spanish priest Silvestre Vélez de Escalante recorded that Native Americans in the area knew the river as el Rio Colorado for the red-brown silt that the river carried from the mountains.<ref>

</ref> In 1859, a U.S. Army topographic expedition led by Captain John Macomb located the confluence of the Green River with the Grand River in what is now Canyonlands National Park in Utah.<ref name=Macomb>Report of the exploring expedition from Santa Fé, New Mexico, to the junction of the Grand and Green Rivers of the great Colorado of the West, in 1859: under the command of Capt. J. N. Macomb, Corps of topographical engineers, Volume 1 @ archive.org</ref> The Macomb party designated the confluence as the source of the Colorado River.

On April 12, 1861, South Carolina artillery opened fire on Fort Sumter to start the American Civil War. While many gold seekers held sympathies for the Confederacy, the vast majority remained fiercely loyal to the Union cause.

In 1862, a force of Texas cavalry invaded the Territory of New Mexico and captured Santa Fe on March 10. The object of this Western Campaign was to seize or disrupt the gold fields of Colorado and California and to seize ports on the Pacific Ocean for the Confederacy. A hastily organized force of Colorado volunteers force-marched from Denver City, Colorado Territory, to Glorieta Pass, New Mexico Territory, in an attempt to block the Texans. On March 28, the Coloradans and local New Mexico volunteers stopped the Texans at the Battle of Glorieta Pass, destroyed their cannon and supply wagons, and ran off 500 head of their horses and mules. The Texans were forced to retreat to Santa Fe. Having lost the supplies for their campaign and finding little support in New Mexico, the Texans abandoned Santa Fe and returned to San Antonio in defeat. The Confederacy made no further attempts to seize the Southwestern United States.

In 1864, Territorial Governor John Evans appointed the Reverend John Chivington as Colonel of the Colorado Volunteers with orders to protect white settlers from Cheyenne and Arapaho warriors who were accused of stealing cattle. Colonel Chivington ordered his men to attack a band of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped along Sand Creek. Chivington reported that his troops killed more than 500 warriors. The militia returned to Denver City in triumph, but several officers reported that the so-called battle was a blatant massacre of Indians at peace, that most of the dead were women and children, and that bodies of the dead had been mutilated and desecrated in hideous manner. Three U.S. Army inquiries condemned the action, and incoming President Andrew Johnson asked Governor Evans for his resignation, but none of the perpetrators was ever punished.

was photographed by William Henry Jackson in 1874]] In the midst and aftermath of Civil War, many discouraged prospectors returned to their homes, but a determined few stayed on to develop mines, mills, farms, ranches, roads, and towns in the Territory. On September 14, 1864, James Huff discovered silver near Argentine Pass, the first of many silver strikes. In 1867, the Union Pacific Railroad laid its tracks west to Weir, now Julesburg, in the northeast corner of the Territory. The Union Pacific linked up with the Central Pacific Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah, on May 10, 1869, to form the First Transcontinental Railroad. The Denver Pacific Railway reached Denver in June of the following year, and the Kansas Pacific arrived two months later to forge the second line across the continent. In 1872, rich veins of silver were discovered in the San Juan Mountains on the Ute Indian reservation in southwestern Colorado. The Ute people were removed from the San Juans the following year.

Statehood

of the Colorado Central Railroad as photographed by William Henry Jackson in 1899]] The United States Congress passed an enabling act on March 3, 1875, specifying the requirements for the Territory of Colorado to become a state.<ref name=Colorado_Enabling_Act>

</ref> On August 1, 1876 (28 days after the Centennial of the United States), U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed a proclamation admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state and earning it the moniker “Centennial State”.<ref name=Colorado_Statehood_Proclamation>

</ref>

The discovery of a major silver lode near Leadville in 1878, triggered the Colorado Silver Boom. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 invigorated silver mining, and Colorado's last, but greatest, gold strike at Cripple Creek a few months later lured a new generation of gold seekers. Colorado women were granted the right to vote beginning on November 7, 1893, making Colorado the second state to grant universal suffrage and the first one by a popular vote (of Colorado men). The repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 1893 led to a staggering collapse of the mining and agricultural economy of Colorado, but the state slowly and steadily recovered.

Colorado became the first western state to host a major political convention when the Democratic Party met in Denver in 1908. By the U.S. Census in 1930, the population of Colorado first exceeded one million residents. Colorado suffered greatly through the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, but a major wave of immigration following World War II boosted Colorado's fortune. Tourism became a mainstay of the state economy, and high technology became an important economic engine. The United States Census Bureau estimated that the population of Colorado exceeded five million in 2009.

Three warships of the U.S. Navy have been named the USS Colorado. The first USS Colorado was named for the Colorado River. The later two ships were named in honor of the state, including the battleship USS Colorado which served in World War II in the Pacific beginning in 1941. At the time of the Attack on Pearl Harbor, this USS Colorado was located at the naval base in San Diego, Calif. and hence went unscathed.

Demographics

</ref> }}

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Colorado was 5,268,367 on July 1, 2013, a 4.8% increase since the 2010 United States Census.<ref name=“PopEstUS”>

</ref> Colorado's most populous city, and capital, is Denver. The Denver-Aurora-Boulder Combined Statistical Area with an estimated 2011 population of 3,157,520, has 61.90% of the state's residents.

The largest increases are expected in the Front Range Urban Corridor, especially in the Denver metropolitan area. The state's fastest-growing counties are Douglas and Weld.<ref>

</ref> The center of population of Colorado is located just north of the village of Critchell in Jefferson County.<ref>

</ref>

According to the 2010 United States Census, Colorado had a population of 5,029,196. Racial composition of the state's population was:

Colorado Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990<ref>Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States</ref> 2000<ref>Population of Colorado: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts</ref> 2010<ref>2010 Census Data</ref>
White 88.2% 82.8% 81.3%
Black 4.0% 3.8% 4.0%
Asian 1.8% 2.2% 2.8%
Native 0.8% 1.0% 1.1%
Native Hawaiian and <br>other Pacific Islander - 0.1% 0.1%
Other race 5.1% 7.2% 7.2%
Two or more races - 2.8% 3.4%

People of Hispanic and Latino American (of any race made) heritage, made up 20.7% of the population.<ref>http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_DP_DPDP1&prodType=table</ref> According to the 2000 Census, the largest ancestry groups in Colorado are German (22%) including of Swiss and Austrian nationalities, Mexican (18%), Irish (12%), and English (12%). Persons reporting German ancestry are especially numerous in the Front Range, the Rockies (west-central counties) and Eastern parts/High Plains.

Colorado has a high proportion of Hispanic, mostly Mexican-American, citizens in Metropolitan Denver, Colorado Springs, as well as the smaller cities of Greeley and Pueblo, and elsewhere. Colorado is well known for its strong Latino culture and presence. Southern, Southwestern, and Southeastern Colorado has a large number of Hispanos, the descendants of the early Mexican settlers of colonial Spanish origin. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Colorado's population as 8.2% Hispanic and 90.3% non-Hispanic white.<ref>

</ref>

The 2000 United States Census found that 10.5% of people aged five and over in Colorado speak only Spanish at home, with the 2009 estimate being roughly 14%. Colorado also has a large immigration presence all throughout the state, which has led to Colorado cities being referred to as “Sanctuary Cities” for illegal immigrants as well. Colorado has the 4th highest percentage of undocumented people in the U.S., only behind Nevada, Arizona, California, and tied with Texas. An estimated 5.5–6.0% of the state's population is composed of illegal immigrants. Also, over 20% of the state's prisoners are undocumented inmates.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> Colorado, like New Mexico, is very rich in archaic Spanish idioms.<ref>

</ref>

Colorado also has some large African-American communities located in Denver, in the neighborhoods of Montbello, Five Points, Whittier, and many other East Denver areas. A relatively large population of African Americans are also found in Colorado Springs on the east and southeast side of the city. The state has sizable numbers of Asian-Americans of Mongolian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Southeast Asian and Japanese descent. The highest population of Asian Americans can be found on the south and southeast side of Denver, as well as some on Denver's southwest side. The Denver metropolitan area is considered more liberal and diverse than much of the state when it comes to political issues and environmental concerns.

There were a total of 70,331 births in Colorado in 2006. (Birth Rate of 14.6). In 2007, non-Hispanic whites were involved in 59.1% of all the births.<ref>

</ref> Some 14.06% of those births involved a non-Hispanic white person and someone of a different race, most often with a couple including one Hispanic. A birth where at least one Hispanic person was involved counted for 43% of the births in Colorado.<ref>CDPHE.state.co.us<!-- Bot generated title -->, COHID Birth Data Request</ref> As of the 2010 Census, Colorado has the seventh highest percentage of Hispanics (20.7%) in the U.S. behind New Mexico (46.3%), California (37.6%), Texas (37.6%), Arizona (29.6%), Nevada (26.5%), and Florida (22.5%). Per the 2000 census, the Hispanic population is estimated to be 918,899 or approximately 20% of the state total population. Colorado has the 5th largest population of Mexican-Americans behind California, Texas, Arizona, and Illinois. In percentages, Colorado has the 6th highest percentage of Mexican-Americans behind New Mexico, California, Texas, Arizona, and Nevada.<ref>Bot generated title -->, Statemaster Colorado</ref>

<!– This section duplicates the Municipalities section

Largest cities

–>

Religion

at Camp Saint Malo near Allenspark.]]

near Colorado Springs.]] Major religious affiliations of the people of Colorado are 64% Christian, of whom there are 44% Protestants, 19% Roman Catholics, 2% Latter Day Saint/Mormon, 2% Jews, 1% Muslim, 1% Buddhist and 0.5% Hindu. The religiously unaffiliated make up 25% of the population.<ref>http://religions.pewforum.org/maps</ref>

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 811,630; non-denominational Evangelical Protestants with 229,981; and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 142,473.<ref>

</ref>

Health

Colorado also has a reputation for being a state of active and athletic people. According to several studies, Coloradans have the lowest rates of obesity of any state in the US.<ref>http://calorielab.com/news/wp-images/post-images/fattest-states-2007-big.gif</ref> As of 2007, 18% of the population was considered medically obese, and while the lowest in the nation, the percentage had increased from 17% from 2004. Former Colorado Governor Bill Ritter commented: “As an avid fisherman and bike rider, I know first-hand that Colorado provides a great environment for active, healthy lifestyles,” although he highlighted the need for continued education and support to slow the growth of obesity in the state.<ref>

</ref>

Culture

Fine arts

Film

A number of film productions have shot on location in Colorado, especially prominent Westerns like True Grit, The Searchers and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. A number of historic military forts, railways with trains still operating, mining ghost towns have been utilized and transformed for historical accuracy in well known films. There are also a number of scenic highways and mountain passes that helped to feature the open road in films such as Vanishing Point, Bingo and Starman. Some Colorado landmarks have been featured in films, such as the The Stanley Hotel in Dumb and Dumber and the Sculptured House in Sleeper. The Colorado Office of Film and Television has noted that over 400 films have been shot in Colorado.<ref>

</ref>

There are also a number of established film festivals in Colorado, including Aspen Shortsfest, Boulder International Film Festival, Castle Rock Film Festival, Denver Film Festival, Festivus film festival, Mile High Horror Film Festival, Moondance International Film Festival, Mountainfilm in Telluride, Rocky Mountain Women's Film Festival, and Telluride Film Festival.

Cuisine

Colorado is known for its Southwest and Rocky Mountain cuisine. Mexican restaurants are prominent throughout the state.

Boulder, Colorado was named America’s Foodiest Town 2010 by Bon Appétit.<ref name=“Bon Appétit”>

</ref> Boulder, and Colorado in general, is home to a number of national food and beverage companies, top-tier restaurants and farmers' markets. Boulder, Colorado also has more Master Sommeliers per capita than any other city, including San Francisco and New York.<ref name=“Denver Magazine”>http://www.denvermagazine.com/March-2011/Colorado-039s-Master-Sommeliers/

</ref>

The Food & Wine Classic held annually each June in Aspen, Colorado. Aspen also has a reputation as the culinary capital of the Rocky Mountain region.<ref>

</ref>

Denver is known for steak, but now has a diverse culinary scene with many top-tier restaurants.<ref name=“Travel + Leisure”>

</ref>

Wine & Beer

Colorado wines include award-winning varietals that have attracted favorable notice from outside the state.<ref>

</ref> With wines made from traditional Vitis vinifera grapes along with wines made from cherries, peaches, plums and honey, Colorado wines have won top national and international awards for their quality.<ref name=“Jefferson Cup Invitational Wine Competition”>

</ref> Colorado's grape growing regions contain the highest elevation vineyards in the United States,<ref>

</ref> with most viticulture in the state practiced between

and

feet above sea level. The mountain climate ensures warm summer days and cool nights. Colorado is home to two designated American Viticultural Areas of the Grand Valley AVA and the West Elks AVA,<ref name=“Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau”>http://www.ttb.gov/appellation/us_by_ava.pdf</ref> where most of the vineyards in the state are located. However, an increasing number of wineries are located along the Front Range.<ref name=“Colorado Wine Industry Development Board”>

</ref>

Colorado is home to many nationally praised microbreweries,<ref>

</ref> including New Belgium Brewing Company, Odell Brewing Company, Great Divide Brewing Company, and Left Hand Brewing Company. The area of northern Colorado near the city of Fort Collins is known as the “Napa Valley of Beer” due to its high density of craft breweries.<ref name=“The Denver Beer Triangle”>

</ref>

Cannabis

Colorado is one of two states to legalize both the medicinal (2000) and recreational (2014) use of marijuana.

Amendment 64 also requires the Colorado state legislature to enact regulations for industrial hemp making Colorado the only source of hemp and hemp products within the United States.

Recreational use

On November 6, 2012, voters amended the state constitution to protect "personal use" of marijuana for adults, establishing a framework to regulate cannabis in a manner similar to alcohol. The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on Jan. 1, 2014.<ref name=Healy>

</ref>

Medicinal use

On November 7, 2000, 54% of Colorado voters passed Amendment 20, which amends the Colorado State constitution to allow the medical use of cannabis.<ref name=“norml-co”>

</ref> Patients can possess no more than two ounces of “usable cannabis” and not more than six cannabis plants, and they may neither take their medicine in public, nor even on their own property, if the public can see them taking it.<ref name=“norml-co”/>

Currently Colorado has listed “eight medical conditions for which patients can use cannabis – cancer, glaucoma, HIV/AIDS, muscle spasms, seizures, severe pain, severe nausea and cachexia or dramatic weight loss and muscle atrophy.”<ref name=Young>

</ref> Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper has allocated about half of the state's $13 million “Medical Marijuana Program Cash Fund”<ref name=MMPCF>

Several links are found, including .PDF documents to download.</ref> to medical research in the 2014 budget.<ref name=Campbell>

</ref><ref name=Markus>

</ref>

Economy

.<br /> The Denver financial district along 17th Street is known as the Wall Street of the West.]]

CNBC's list of “Top States for Business for 2010” has recognized Colorado as the third best state in the nation, falling short to only Texas and Virginia.<ref>America's Top States for Business 2010.” CNBC Special Report (2010): 1. Web. May 9, 2011. <http://www.cnbc.com/id/37516043/>.</ref>

growing in Larimer County]]

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that the total state product in 2010 was $257.6 billion.<ref>

</ref> Per capita personal income in 2010 was $51 940, ranking Colorado 11th in the nation.<ref>

</ref> The state's economy broadened from its mid-19th century roots in mining when irrigated agriculture developed, and by the late 19th century, raising livestock had become important. Early industry was based on the extraction and processing of minerals and agricultural products. Current agricultural products are cattle, wheat, dairy products, corn, and hay.

The federal government is also a major economic force in the state with many important federal facilities including NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command, United States Air Force Academy, Schriever Air Force Base located approximately 10 miles (16 kilometers) east of Peterson Air Force Base, and Fort Carson, both located in Colorado Springs within El Paso County; NOAA, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder; U.S. Geological Survey and other government agencies at the Denver Federal Center near Lakewood; the Denver Mint, Buckley Air Force Base, and 10th Circuit Court of Appeals in Denver; and a federal Supermax Prison and other federal prisons near Cañon City. In addition to these and other federal agencies, Colorado has abundant National Forest land and four National Parks that contribute to federal ownership of

of land in Colorado, or 37% of the total area of the state.<ref>

Colorado Department of Agriculture: Land Ownership

</ref> In the second half of the 20th century, the industrial and service sectors have expanded greatly. The state's economy is diversified and is notable for its concentration of scientific research and high-technology industries. Other industries include food processing, transportation equipment, machinery, chemical products, the extraction of metals such as gold (see Gold mining in Colorado), silver, and molybdenum. Colorado now also has the largest annual production of beer of any state.<ref>

</ref> Denver is an important financial center.

A number of nationally known brand names have originated in Colorado factories and laboratories. From Denver came the forerunner of telecommunications giant Qwest in 1879, Samsonite luggage in 1910, Gates belts and hoses in 1911, and Russell Stover Candies in 1923. Kuner canned vegetables began in Brighton in 1864. From Golden came Coors beer in 1873, CoorsTek industrial ceramics in 1920, and Jolly Rancher candy in 1949. CF&I railroad rails, wire, nails and pipe debuted in Pueblo in 1892. Holly Sugar was first milled from beets in Holly in 1905, and later moved its headquarters to Colorado Springs. The present-day Swift packed meat of Greeley evolved from Monfort of Colorado, Inc., established in 1930. Estes model rockets were launched in Penrose in 1958. Fort Collins has been the home of Woodward Governor Company's motor controllers (governors) since 1870, and Waterpik dental water jets and showerheads since 1962. Celestial Seasonings herbal teas have been made in Boulder since 1969. Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory made its first candy in Durango in 1981.

Colorado has a flat 4.63% income tax, regardless of income level. Unlike most states, which calculate taxes based on federal adjusted gross income, Colorado taxes are based on taxable income – income after federal exemptions and federal itemized (or standard) deductions.<ref>Colorado individual income tax return (2005) Revenue.state.co.us. Retrieved September 26, 2006.</ref><ref>U.S. Individual Income Tax Return (2005) online copy. Retrieved September 26, 2006.</ref> Colorado's state sales tax is 2.9% on retail sales. When state revenues exceed state constitutional limits, full-year Colorado residents can claim a sales tax refund on their individual state income tax return. Many counties and cities charge their own rates in addition to the base state rate. There are also certain county and special district taxes that may apply.

Real estate and personal business property are taxable in Colorado. The state's senior property tax exemption was temporarily suspended by the Colorado Legislature in 2003. The tax break is scheduled to return for assessment year 2006, payable in 2007.

As of September 2012, the state's unemployment rate is 7.9%.<ref>Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment Statistics</ref>

Philanthropy

Major philanthropic organizations based in Colorado, include the Daniels Fund, the Anschutz Family Foundation, the Gates Family Foundation, the El Pomar Foundation and the Boettcher Foundation grant each year from approximately $7 billion<ref>http://www.cof.org/files/Documents/Government/StateGiving/CO.pdf</ref> of assets.

Natural resources

in western Colorado]] Colorado has significant hydrocarbon resources. According to the Energy Information Administration, Colorado hosts seven of the Nation’s 100 largest natural gas fields and two of its 100 largest oil fields. Conventional and unconventional natural gas output from several Colorado basins typically account for more than 5 percent of annual U.S. natural gas production. Colorado’s oil shale deposits hold an estimated

of oil – nearly as much oil as the entire world’s proven oil reserves; the economic viability of the oil shale, however, has not been demonstrated.<ref>

</ref> Substantial deposits of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal are found in the state.

Colorado's high Rocky Mountain ridges and eastern plains offer wind power potential, and geologic activity in the mountain areas provides potential for geothermal power development. Much of the state is sunny and could produce solar power. Major rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains offer hydroelectric power resources. Corn grown in the flat eastern part of the state offers potential resources for ethanol production.

Transportation

Colorado's transportation system is extensive and has been the genesis of world-class innovations in highway and railway construction as well as airport design, infrastructure development, and operational innovation.

Colorado's primary mode of transportation (in terms of passengers) is its highway system. Interstate 25 is the primary North/South highway in the state, connecting Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo, and Fort Collins, and extending north to Wyoming and south to New Mexico. Interstate 70 is the primary East/West corridor. It connects Denver with the mountain communities, Grand Junction, and then west to points in Utah. The state is home to a network of US and Colorado highways that provide access to all principal areas of the state. Smaller communities are only connected to this network via county roads.

.]] Denver International Airport (DIA) is the fourth busiest domestic U.S. airport and thirteenth busiest world airport<ref>Year to Date Passenger Traffic</ref> DIA handles by far the largest volume of commercial air traffic in Colorado, and is the busiest U.S. hub airport between Chicago and the Pacific coast, making Denver the most important airport for connecting passenger traffic in the western U.S. Denver International Airport is the primary hub for low-cost carrier Frontier Airlines, with routes throughout North America. It is also the fourth-largest hub of the world's largest airline, United Airlines. DIA is a focus city for Southwest Airlines, which since commencing service to Denver in January 2006, has added over 50 destinations, making Denver its fastest-growing market. Denver International Airport is the only airport in the United States to have implemented an ISO 14001-certified environmental management system covering the entire airport.<ref>

</ref>

Extensive public transportation bus services are offered both intra-city and inter-city—including the Denver metro area's extensive RTD services. The Regional Transportation District (RTD) operates the popular RTD Bus & Light Rail transit system in the Denver Metropolitan Area. As of January 2013 the RTD rail system had 170 light rail vehicles, serving

of track.

s meet in the Glenwood Canyon.]] Amtrak operates two rail passenger lines through Colorado, including the Glenwood Canyon route of the famed California Zephyr, one of America's legendary passenger trains. Colorado's contribution to world railroad history was forged principally by the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad which began in 1870 and wrote the book on mountain railroading. In 1988 the “Rio Grande” acquired, but was merged into, the Southern Pacific Railroad by their joint owner Philip Anschutz. On September 11, 1996, Anschutz sold the combined company to the Union Pacific Railroad, creating the largest railroad network in the United States. The Anschutz sale was partly in response to the earlier merger of Burlington Northern and Santa Fe which formed the large Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway (BNSF), Union Pacific's principal competitor in western U.S. railroading. Both Union Pacific and BNSF have extensive freight operations in Colorado.

Colorado's freight railroad network consists of 2,688 miles of Class I trackage. It is integral to the U.S. economy, being a critical artery for the movement of energy, agriculture, mining, and industrial commodities as well as general freight and manufactured products between the East and Midwest and the Pacific coast states.<ref>

</ref>

Government and politics

State government

The Five Executive Officers of the State of Colorado
Office Incumbent Party Term
Governor John Hickenlooper Democratic 2011–2015
Lieutenant Governor Joseph Garcia Democratic 2011–2015
Secretary of State Scott Gessler Republican 2011–2015
State Treasurer Walker Stapleton Republican 2011–2015
Attorney General John Suthers Republican 2005–2015

Like the federal government and all other U.S. states, Colorado's state constitution provides for three branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial branches.

The Governor of Colorado heads the state's executive branch. The current governor is John Hickenlooper, a Democrat. Colorado's other statewide elected executive officers are the Lieutenant Governor of Colorado (elected on a ticket with the Governor), Secretary of State of Colorado, Colorado State Treasurer, and Attorney General of Colorado, all of whom serve four-year terms.

The seven-member Colorado Supreme Court is the highest judicial court in the state.

Gubernatorial election results
Year Republican Democratic
2010 11.3% 199,034 51.0% 912,005
2006 40.16% 625,886 56.98% 888,096
2002 62.62% 884,584 33.65% 475,373
1998 49.06% 648,202 48.43% 639,905
1994 38.70% 432,042 55.47% 619,205
1990 35.43% 358,403 61.89% 626,032

The state legislative body is the Colorado General Assembly, which is made up of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House has 65 members and the Senate has 35.

, the Democratic Party holds a 18 to 17 majority in the Senate and a 37 to 28 majority in the House.

Most Coloradans are originally native to other states (nearly 60% according to the 2000 census),<ref>

</ref> and this is illustrated by the fact that the state did not have a native-born governor from 1975 (when John David Vanderhoof left office) until 2007, when Bill Ritter took office; his election the previous year marked the first electoral victory for a native-born Coloradan in a gubernatorial race since 1958 (Vanderhoof had ascended from the Lieutenant Governorship when John Arthur Love was given a position in Richard Nixon's administration in 1973).

Counties

File:Map of Colorado counties, labelled.svg

of the State of Colorado]]

The State of Colorado is divided into 64 counties.<ref name= CountiesCO>

</ref> Counties are important units of government in Colorado since the state has no secondary civil subdivisions such as townships. Two of these counties, the City and County of Denver and the City and County of Broomfield, have consolidated city and county governments.

Nine Colorado counties have a population in excess of 250,000 each, while eight Colorado counties have a population of less than 2,500 each. The ten most populous Colorado counties are all located in the Front Range Urban Corridor.

<center> <!– THE FOLLOWING TABLE CONTAINS DATA FROM THE UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU. DO not ALTER U.S. CENSUS DATA. –>

The 15 Colorado counties with a population of at least 50,000<br /><br />
Rank County 2012 Estimate 2010 Census Change
El Paso County

City and County of Denver

Arapahoe County
Jefferson County
Adams County
Larimer County
Boulder County
Douglas County
Weld County
Pueblo County
Mesa County

City and County of Broomfield

Garfield County
La Plata County
Eagle County

</center> <!– THE PRECEDING TABLE CONTAINS DATA FROM THE UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU. DO not ALTER U.S. CENSUS DATA. –>

Metropolitan areas

File:Colorado census statistical areas.svg

s in the state of Colorado.]]

The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has defined one Combined Statistical Area (CSA),<ref name=CSA>The United States Office of Management and Budget defines a Combined Statistical Area (CSA) as an aggregate of adjacent Core Based Statistical Areas that are linked by commuting ties.</ref> seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs),<ref name=MSA>The United States Office of Management and Budget defines a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as a Core Based Statistical Area having at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.</ref> and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs)<ref name=“μSA”>The United States Office of Management and Budget defines a Micropolitan Statistical Area (μSA) as a Core Based Statistical Area having at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.</ref> in the state of Colorado.<ref name=OMB_10-02>

</ref>

The most populous of the 14 Core Based Statistical Areas in Colorado is the Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. This area had an estimated population of 2,599,504 on July 1, 2011, an increase of +2.20% since the 2010 United States Census.<ref name=AF>

</ref>

The more extensive Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated population of 3,157,520 on July 1, 2011, an increase of +2.16% since the 2010 United States Census.<ref name=AF/>

The most populous extended metropolitan region in Rocky Mountain Region is the Front Range Urban Corridor along the northeast face of the Southern Rocky Mountains. This region with Denver at its center had an estimated population of 4,423,936 on July 1, 2011, an increase of +2.06% since the 2010 United States Census.<ref name=AF/>

Municipalities

The state of Colorado currently has 271 active incorporated municipalities, including 196 towns, 73 cities, and two consolidated city and county governments.<ref name=COmuniStatus>

</ref><ref name=COgovTypes>

</ref>

Colorado municipalities operate under one of five types of municipal governing authority. Colorado has one town with a territorial charter, 160 statutory towns, 12 statutory cities, 96 home rule municipalities (61 cities and 35 towns), and 2 consolidated city and county governments. <center>

<!– THE FOLLOWING TABLE CONTAINS DATA FROM THE UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU. DO NOT ALTER U.S. CENSUS DATA. –>

The 26 Colorado municipalities with a population of at least 25,000<br /><br />
Rank Municipality 2012 Estimate 2010 Census Change
City and County of Denver
City of Colorado Springs
City of Aurora
City of Fort Collins
City of Lakewood
City of Thornton
City of Arvada
City of Westminster
City of Pueblo
City of Centennial
City of Boulder
City of Greeley
City of Longmont
City of Loveland
City of Grand Junction
City and County of Broomfield
Town of Castle Rock
City of Commerce City
Town of Parker
City of Littleton
City of Northglenn
City of Brighton
City of Englewood
City of Wheat Ridge
City of Fountain
City of Lafayette

</center> <!– THE PRECEDING TABLE CONTAINS DATA FROM THE UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU. DO NOT ALTER U.S. CENSUS DATA. –>

Unincorporated communities

In addition to its 271 municipalities, Colorado has 187 unincorporated United States census designated places and many other small communities.

<center> <!– THE FOLLOWING TABLE CONTAINS DATA FROM THE UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU. DO not ALTER U.S. CENSUS DATA. –>

The 16 Census Designated Places in Colorado with a population of at least 10,000<br /><br />
Rank Census Designated Place 2010 Census 2000 Census Change
Highlands Ranch
Security-Widefield
Ken Caryl
Dakota Ridge
Pueblo West
Columbine
Clifton
Sherrelwood
Cimarron Hills
Welby
Fort Carson
Black Forest
Berkley
Cherry Creek

The Pinery

Edwards

</center> <!– THE PRECEDING TABLE CONTAINS DATA FROM THE UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU. DO not ALTER U.S. CENSUS DATA. –>

Special districts

The state of Colorado has more than 3,000 districts with taxing authority. These districts may provide schools, law enforcement, fire protection, water, sewage, drainage, irrigation, transportation, recreation, infrastructure, cultural facilities, business support, redevelopment, or other services.

Some of these districts have authority to levy sales tax and well as property tax and use fees. This has led to a hodgepodge of sales tax and property tax rates in Colorado. There are some street intersections in Colorado with a different sales tax rate on each corner, sometimes substantially different.

Some of the more notable Colorado districts are:

  • The Regional Transportation District (RTD), which affects the counties of Denver, Boulder, Jefferson, and portions of Adams, Arapahoe, Broomfield, and Douglas Counties
  • The Scientific and Cultural Facilities District (SCFD), a special regional tax district with physical boundaries contiguous with county boundaries of Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Broomfield, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson Counties
    • It is a 0.1% retail sales and use tax (one penny on every $10).
    • According to the Colorado statute, the SCFD distributes the money to local organizations on an annual basis. These organizations must provide for the enlightenment and entertainment of the public through the production, presentation, exhibition, advancement or preservation of art, music, theater, dance, zoology, botany, natural history or cultural history.
    • As directed by statute, SCFD recipient organizations are currently divided into three “tiers” among which receipts are allocated by percentage.
      • Tier I includes regional organizations: the Denver Art Museum, the Denver Botanic Gardens, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, the Denver Zoo, and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts. It receives 65.5%.
      • Tier II currently includes 26 regional organizations. Tier II receives 21%.
      • Tier III has over 280 local organizations such as small theaters, orchestras, art centers, and natural history, cultural history, and community groups. Tier III organizations apply for funding to the county cultural councils via a grant process. This tier receives 13.5%.
    • An 11-member board of directors oversees the distributions in accordance with the Colorado Revised Statutes. Seven board members are appointed by county commissioners (in Denver, the Denver City Council) and four members are appointed by the Governor of Colorado.
  • The Football Stadium District (FD or FTBL), approved by the voters to pay for and help build the Denver Broncos' stadium Sports Authority Field at Mile High
  • Local Improvement Districts (LID) within designated areas of southeast Jefferson and Boulder counties
  • Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) taxes at varying rates in Basalt, Carbondale, Glenwood Springs, Gunnison County

Federal politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2012 46.12% 1,185,050 51.49% 1,322,998
2008 44.71% 1,073,584 53.66% 1,288,568
2004 51.69% 1,101,255 47.02% 1,001,732
2000 50.75% 883,745 42.39% 738,227
1996 45.80% 691,848 44.43% 671,152
1992 35.87% 562,850 40.13% 629,681
1988 53.06% 728,177 45.28% 621,453

Colorado is considered a swing state in both state and federal elections. Coloradans have elected 17 Democrats and 12 Republicans to the governorship in the last 100 years. In presidential politics, Colorado was considered a reliably Republican state the post-World War II era, only voting for the Democratic candidate in 1964 and 1992. However, it became a competitive swing state by the turn of the century, and voted consecutively for Democrat Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012.

Colorado politics has the contrast of conservative cities such as Colorado Springs and liberal cities such as Boulder and Denver. Democrats are strongest in metropolitan Denver, the college towns of Fort Collins and Boulder, southern Colorado (including Pueblo), and a few western ski resort counties. The Republicans are strongest in the Eastern Plains, Colorado Springs, Greeley, and far Western Colorado near Grand Junction.

The state of Colorado is represented by its two United States Senators:

Colorado is represented by seven Representatives to the United States House of Representatives:

Significant bills passed in Colorado

On the November 8, 1932 ballot, Colorado approved the repeal of alcohol prohibition more than a year before the federal government passed the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution.

In 2012, voters amended the state constitution to protect "personal use" of marijuana for adults, establishing a framework to regulate cannabis in a manner similar to alcohol. The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on Jan. 1, 2014.<ref>

</ref>

Education

.]] Colleges and universities in Colorado:

.]]

.]] <!– This list of colleges is limited to schools with a physical campus in Colorado that offer accredited associate, baccalaureate, or graduate degrees –>

Military installations

Protected areas

in Canyons of the Ancients National Monument]]

]]

]]

Colorado is home to four national parks, seven national monuments, two national recreation areas, two national historic sites, three national historic trails, one national scenic trail, 11 national forests, two national grasslands, 41 national wilderness areas, two national conservation areas, eight national wildlife refuges, 44 state parks, 307 state wildlife areas, and numerous other scenic, historic, and recreational areas.

Units of the National Park System in Colorado:

Sports

National League baseball club at Coors Field in Denver.]]

, home of the Denver Broncos National Football League club and the Denver Outlaws Major League Lacrosse club.]]

in Denver, home of the Denver Nuggets National Basketball Association club, the Colorado Avalanche National Hockey League club, and the Colorado Mammoth National Lacrosse League club.]]

in Commerce City, home of the Colorado Rapids Major League Soccer club.]]

Colorado is the least populous state with a franchise in each of the major professional sports leagues.

Professional sports teams

College athletics

State symbols

See also

References

Further reading

  • <cite>Explore Colorado, A Naturalist's Handbook</cite>, The Denver Museum of Natural History and Westcliff Publishers, 1995, ISBN 1-56579-124-X for an excellent guide to the ecological regions of Colorado.
  • <cite>The Archeology of Colorado, Revised Edition</cite>, E. Steve Cassells, Johnson Books, Boulder, Colorado, 1997, trade paperback, ISBN 1-55566-193-9.
  • <cite>Chokecherry Places, Essays from the High Plains</cite>, Merrill Gilfillan, Johnson Press, Boulder, Colorado, trade paperback, ISBN 1-55566-227-7.
  • <cite>The Tie That Binds</cite>, Kent Haruf, 1984, hardcover, ISBN 0-03-071979-8, a fictional account of farming in Colorado.
  • <cite>Railroads of Colorado: Your Guide to Colorado's Historic Trains and Railway Sites</cite>, Claude Wiatrowski, Voyageur Press, 2002, hardcover, 160 pages, ISBN 0-89658-591-3

External links

colorado.txt · Last modified: 2019/12/05 08:20 (external edit)