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Vote with your feet by moving (http://WalkingToFreedom.com) to the libertarian safe refuge of the “American Redoubt” in Idaho - Montana - Wyoming - Eastern Oregon - Eastern Washington - Northern Utah or the Texas Redoubt or the Tennessee Cumberland Redoubt (http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-of-the-east) for more Bill of Rights freedom, especially Second Amendment gun rights — see

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for state rankings,

https://www.SurvivalRetreatConsulting.com,

http://www.RevRealty.us,

https://www.SurvivalRealty.com

RadioFreeRedoubt.com podcast,

CharlesCarrollSociety.com podcast by a conservative black Catholic Redoubter.

Sadly, the beautiful state of California is now a lost cause politically. But still keep fighting to restore her greatness.

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One could say that the American Redoubt was “founded” when Montana became a State of these United States of America on November 8, 1889, just 1 year before Idaho and Wyoming.

For those who are more attached to the East Coast and can't easily migrate to the American Redoubt in the Intermountain-West, we recommend the blog of the inspirational M.D. Creekmore who posted Joel M. Skousen, Author, Strategic Relocation North American Guide to Safe Places, on the Tennessee Cumberland Plateau solution to the “The East Coast Retreat Dilemma”: http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-of-the-east http://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/news-eastern-redoubt-tennessee-cumberland-plateau/

“As a relocation specialist and designer, I found safe retreat locations and helped clients develop high security homes in every state of the union and you can too. The concept that anyone caught East of the Mississippi River is doomed is only partially valid and highly exaggerated. You can achieve a significantly higher level of safety going beyond the Appalachians to the high plateau regions of Tennessee and Kentucky. This massive and relatively unpopulated area is called the Cumberland Plateau—most of which falls within the state of Tennessee.” Joel M. Skousen (https://joelskousen.com/strategic.html) is a relocation specialist and author of “Strategic Relocation North American Guide to Safe Places.” https://www.thesurvivalistblog.net/redoubt-east-aka-cumberland-plateau-ot-tennessee/

amateur_radio

Amateur radio glossary

See Amateur radio

Snippet from Wikipedia: Amateur radio

Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication. The term "amateur" is used to specify "a duly authorised person interested in radioelectric practice with a purely personal aim and without pecuniary interest;" (either direct monetary or other similar reward) and to differentiate it from commercial broadcasting, public safety (such as police and fire), or professional two-way radio services (such as maritime, aviation, taxis, etc.).

The amateur radio service (amateur service and amateur-satellite service) is established by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) through the Radio Regulations. National governments regulate technical and operational characteristics of transmissions and issue individual stations licenses with an identifying call sign. Prospective amateur operators are tested for their understanding of key concepts in electronics and the host government's radio regulations.

Radio amateurs use a variety of voice, text, image, and data communications modes and have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum. This enables communication across a city, region, country, continent, the world, or even into space. In many countries, amateur radio operators may also send, receive, or relay radio communications between computers or transceivers connected to secure virtual private networks on the Internet.

Amateur radio is officially represented and coordinated by the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU), which is organized in three regions and has as its members the national amateur radio societies which exist in most countries. According to an estimate made in 2011 by the American Radio Relay League, two million people throughout the world are regularly involved with amateur radio. About 830,000 amateur radio stations are located in IARU Region 2 (the Americas) followed by IARU Region 3 (South and East Asia and the Pacific Ocean) with about 750,000 stations. A significantly smaller number, about 400,000, are located in IARU Region 1 (Europe, Middle East, CIS, Africa).

Amateur radio, often called “Ham radio,” consists of a set of high-frequency short wave bands that licensed individuals can broadcast and receive communications in virtually any country, with the exception of North Korea. Hams (the name given to amateur radio operators) volunteer their radio skills during emergencies to provide communications when regular communications fail such as in the aftermath of Katrina or a terrorist attack. Ham radio is also a preparedness hobby and a source of entertainment for operators who use it to broadcast information, educational, music, two-way communication, and many other types of broadcasts.

Common Ham Uses

Two-Way Communication

  • Chat with other people
  • DX - try to talk to as many different countries as you can
  • Radioteletype - broadcast what you type on a special keyboard
  • Use small handheld radios to communicate locally
  • National Traffic System - Still used to shuttle messages back and forth across the country.

Organized Programs

;ARES (Amateur Radio Emergency Service) : Help keep communication up during emergencies.

;RACES (Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service) : A group much like ARES but tied to local civil defense agencies.

;SKYWARN : A weather spotting and reporting program of the National Weather Service (NWS). (You do not need to be an amateur radio operator to participate in this program, but you do need NWS certification and training.)

;MARS (Military Affiliate Radio System) : Help overseas soldiers keep in touch with home.

;Public Service Communications : Volunteer to help with marathons, parades, and other public functions where they need trained communicators.

Technical Pursuits

  • Bounce your signal off of the Moon
  • Build your own radio or collect antique radios
  • Experiment (new antennas, laser or microwave communications, etc.)
  • Go on foxhunts (finding hidden radio transmitters)
  • Send and receive TV
  • Send and receive data using packet radio
  • Use ham radio satellites (several in orbit)
  • Talk to astronauts on the International Space Station
  • Use a repeater (powerful stations that retransmit your weak signal)

Digital Communications

Digital communications over ham is becoming increasingly popular.

;PSK31 :A digital mode requiring a computer, PSK31 (Phase Shift Keying) requires little bandwidth (around 100 Hz) and can be heard easily over long distances

;WSPR :A digital mode requiring a computer which can tolerate high amounts of noise. In fact you can receive a data transmission even when the signal is below the noise floor.

;RTTY :A digital mode requiring a computer which only supports a limited character set, and is used both in net operation and 1:1 chats

;SSTV :A digital mode that transmits pictures. Frame rate is about 2 frames per minute. The space shuttle and International Space Station (NA1SS) transmit images from space via this mode.

;Packet :A digital mode requiring a computer, allowing for transmission of text as well as small computer files. Uses the AX.25 protocol (Amateur x.25). Developed in the 1970s.

;Pactor :A digital mode requiring a computer, allowing for transmission of text as well as small computer files. Released to the public in 1991. Improved reception of digital signals as it includes error correction (CRC). Allows for internet access to remote locations (as well as at sea using Marine Radio).

Nets

A net is an on-the-air meeting of hams who have a particular interest. There are nets for hams who are pilots, RV travelers, high school students, WWII veterans, hams who are gay, hams who collect Civil War memorabilia, and many more. There are “traffic nets” that are used to pass information worldwide; for example, for missionaries to communicate with their families.

Licensing

A license is required to transmit with ham radio, anyone can listen, but it is a felony to transmit without a license. Ham is actively patrolled for offenders who are prosecuted, which is why ham radio is far more organized and orderly than CB radio.

It should be noted that in a real emergency where no other means of communication is available that anybody can use any mode or frequency, regardless of licensing. While this is the case licensing is still strongly recommended as it allows for usage of the radios and its various modes to ensure familiarity when an emergency does arise.

License Classes

In the USA, there are three classes of ham radio license and all of them require that you pass tests. These tests are published to make preparation easier and not considered to be difficult by most people. Licenses in the USA are valid for 10 years from date of registration, and are renewable.

;Technician Class (prerequisites - None) :The first license is the Technician class which requires you to pass a 35 question test with 70% correct or better. There is a “pool” of 350 possible questions, divided into 35 sections of ten questions each. On the test, one question is taken from each section. The questions are on the rules and regulations governing ham radio, operating procedures, safety, and very basic electronics. Many of the questions are common sense (Q: When is it legal to use obscenities on the air? A: never), and the rest are relatively easy to learn. Once you have your technician class license you will have the following privileges:

:* Transmit on VHF and UHF and Microwave frequencies up to 1500w :* Transmit on part of the 80, 40, and 15 Meter Bands in Morse Code up to 200w :* Transmit on part of the 10 Meter Band in SSB voice up to 200w

;General Class (prerequisites - Technician Class license) :A general class license will allow you to broadcast on a greater range or high-frequency bands and requires another written test. The test will consist of more about in depth information about the rules, operating procedures, and electronics. While it does require a more preparation than the technician class, anyone can get a general class license with a little work. With a general class license you gain the following privileges: :*Broadcast on the 160, 30, 17, 12, and 10 Meter bands :*Broadcast on portions of the 80, 40, 20, and 15 Meter bands

;Amateur Extra Class (prerequisites - General Class license) :The highest class license is the Amateur Extra class, which requires a 50 question written test on more advanced operating procedures and electronics. With an amateur extra class, you will be able to broadcast on all amateur radio frequencies. Amateur Extra class also enjoys full reciprocal operating privileges in many foreign countries when traveling, though you will need to properly apply for such privileges from the governing authority of that country.

Preparing For Tests

To prepare, you need a copy of the questions that can download them from the American Radio Relay League, or you can buy one of the study manuals from the ARRL:

:* The Technician’s Q&A Book - the questions with short explanations of the answers) :* Now You’re Talking - a more detailed guide to ham radio

Or you can download a free study guide from KB6NU: :* No-Nonsense Technician Study Guide (pdf) this guide will explain the theory using the same words that the test uses. This makes it a snap to learn the material and pass the test. :* No-nonsense General Study Guide (pdf) This guide will use the exact wording that appears on the test to explain the theory that the test covers. It makes it much easier to pass the test. :* AD7FO's extra class study material This will give you the questions and answers along with some information why those are the answers for the Extra exam. Its similar to the no-nonsense guides by KB6NU.

The ARRL also sells manuals for the higher licenses, helpful materials for learning code, and other educational materials. You can als buy DVDs that will prepare you for the test. There are also web sites where you can take practice tests using the actual questions, such as W8MHB.com.

Taking The Tests

When you’re ready to take the test, you have to find a local radio club. The tests are given by Volunteer Examiners (VE) who are ham radio operators trained and certified to administer examinations. They will administer and grade the test and send your info to the FCC if you pass. The FCC will issue your license. If you pass an examination for one level you may also take the examination for the next level at that same session for no additional cost. So, if you pass your Technician's exam, you can immediately take your General exam as well. Some hams have passed all three tests at the same session. The test may cost anywhere up to $15.00 to cover the volunteer’s expenses, though it is sometimes given for free at special events or through amateur radio clubs. You can get a list of clubs and test dates from the ARRL web site. Once you pass your test, you have a license for life (it must be renewed once every 10 years; renewal is free). You will be assigned a set of call letters that uniquely identifies your station.

Equipment

Once you have a license, you will need equipment to make use of it; namely a radio transceiver that is capable of broadcasting and receiving the frequencies you are interested in and licensed to use.

Types of Radios

There are many different types or radios with a wide variety of features, capabilities, and price ranges.

;Handheld Radios :These are excellent for portability and local communication. Also known as HT radios (short for handy-talkie).

;Mobile Radios :These are excellent all-around radios with the power of a base station and the mobility of a portable. Typically near the size of a car stereo for easy mounting in a vehicle.

;Station Radios :These are used from a base location and have more power, features, and range

Radio Features

Radio transceivers have many different features and capabilities to consider when choosing which radio is right for you.

  • Band/Frequency Capabilities - some radio only broadcast/receive 1 band, others cover the entire amateur spectrum
  • Power - radios can very greatly in power output, which is a major factor in range capability
  • Digital
  • Modes - voice (called Phone), Morse code, RTTY
  • Modulation type - AM, FM, SSB, CW
  • Antenna Analyzers
  • Computer Control
  • Digital Signal Processors

Antennas

For inexpensive but effective portable antennas you may want to visit homebrew antennas.

Amplifiers

Most HF rigs put out somewhere between 100 and 400 watts. With use of a linear amplifier, you can go up to a full legal limit of 1500 Watts! There are some rules concerning what bands you can do this on, and how much power you can put out in terms of PEP (Peak Envelope Power) but by the time you get into all of that, all of that will make sense.

Repeaters

A repeater is a machine that typically exists in a fairly high place that listens on one frequency, amplifies the signal, and outputs it on another frequency. In the 2 meter band, the frequency offset is typically 600khz. The direction of the offset is dictated by the band plan.

Some Dual-band/Dual-VFO mobile radios have a feature called “cross band repeating.” This acts as a repeater that crosses bands. Handy if you're prone to hiking just outside of your HT's range, but well within your mobile's range. Here, you can use your HT to “hit” your mobile rig in your vehicle, which can then hit the repeater.

Often repeaters can be interconnected so what one repeater transmits gets repeated across multiple repeaters, giving a much longer range. It is not unusual on some frequencies to be able to reach from Portland to Puget Sound on a frequency that is typically line-of-sight due to interconnected repeaters.

While there are no laws governing who can make a repeater and where, there is a general agreement that when setting up a new repeater the repeater owner will work with a registering organization to identify available frequencies on which they can operate without causing conflict with other established repeaters.

Where to Get a Radio

There are a lot of places to buy ham radios and accessories, Hamfests are gatherings of ham radio operators where they buy, sell, and swap equipment, win radios as prizes in drawings, take ham radio tests, and talk. At hamfests you can get both new and used equipment. Many hams operate with used rigs, and a well-cared for radio lasts all but forever. Here are some sources:

See Also

References

<references />

Communications Internet


Amateur radio (also called ham radio) is the use of designated radio frequency spectra for purposes of private recreation, non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, and emergency communication. The term “amateur” is used to specify persons interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without direct monetary or other similar reward, and to differentiate it from commercial broadcasting, public safety (such as police and fire), or professional two-way radio services (such as maritime, aviation, taxis, etc.).

The amateur radio service (amateur service and amateur satellite service) is established by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) through the International Telecommunication Regulations. National governments regulate technical and operational characteristics of transmissions and issue individual stations licenses with an identifying call sign. Prospective amateur operators are tested for their understanding of key concepts in electronics and the host government's radio regulations. Radio amateurs use a variety of voice, text, image, and data communications modes and have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum to enable communication across a city, region, country, continent, the world, or even into space.

Amateur radio is officially represented and coordinated by the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU), which is organized in three regions and has as its members the national amateur radio societies which exist in most countries. According to an estimate made in 2011 by the American Radio Relay League, two million people throughout the world are regularly involved with amateur radio.<ref>

</ref> About 830,000 amateur radio stations are located in IARU Region 2 (the Americas) followed by IARU Region 3 (South and East Asia and the Pacific Ocean) with about 750,000 stations. A significantly smaller number, about 400,000, are located in IARU Region 1 (Europe, Middle East, CIS, Africa).

History

<!–Please do not add extensive info to this section; instead, go to the “History of amateur radio” page–> The origins of amateur radio can be traced to the late 19th century, but amateur radio as practiced today began in the early 20th century. The First Annual Official Wireless Blue Book of the Wireless Association of America, produced in 1909, contains the first listing of amateur radio stations.<ref name=“bluebook1909”>

</ref> This first radio callbook lists wireless telegraph stations in Canada and the United States, including 89 amateur radio stations. As with radio in general, the birth of amateur radio was strongly associated with various amateur experimenters and hobbyists. Throughout its history, amateur radio enthusiasts have significantly contributed to science, engineering, industry, and social services. Research by amateur radio operators has founded new industries,<ref>

</ref> built economies,<ref>

</ref> empowered nations,<ref>''Role of Amateur Radio in Development Communication of Bangladesh.'' Information & Communication Technology for Development. By Bazlur Rahman

</ref> and saved lives in times of emergency.<ref>

</ref><ref name=“ARRL-whatis”>

</ref> Ham radio can also be used in the classroom to teach English, map skills, geography, math, science and computer skills.<ref>

</ref>

Ham radio

The term “ham radio” was first a pejorative that mocked amateur radio operators with a 19th-century term for being bad at something, like “ham-fisted” or “ham actor”. It had already been used for bad wired telegraph operators.

Subsequently, the community adopted it as a welcome moniker, much like the “Know-Nothing Party”, or other groups and movements throughout history. Other, more entertaining explanations have grown up throughout the years, but they are apocryphal.

Activities and practices

The many facets of amateur radio attract practitioners with a wide range of interests. Many amateurs begin with a fascination of radio communication and then combine other personal interests to make pursuit of the hobby rewarding. Some of the focal areas amateurs pursue include radio contesting, radio propagation study, public service communication, technical experimentation, and computer networking.

Amateur radio operators use various modes of transmission to communicate. The two most common modes for voice transmissions are frequency modulation (FM) and single sideband (SSB). FM offers high quality audio signals, while SSB is better at long distance communication when bandwidth is restricted.<ref name=“ARRLfaq”>

</ref>

Radiotelegraphy using Morse code, also known as “CW” from “continuous wave”, is the wireless extension of land line (wired) telegraphy developed by Samuel Morse and dates to the earliest days of radio. Although computer-based (digital) modes and methods have largely replaced CW for commercial and military applications, many amateur radio operators still enjoy using the CW mode—particularly on the shortwave bands and for experimental work, such as earth-moon-earth communication, because of its inherent signal-to-noise ratio advantages. Morse, using internationally agreed message encodings such as the Q code, enables communication between amateurs who speak different languages. It is also popular with homebrewers and in particular with “QRP” or very-low-power enthusiasts, as CW-only transmitters are simpler to construct, and the human ear-brain signal processing system can pull weak CW signals out of the noise where voice signals would be totally inaudible. A similar “legacy” mode popular with home constructors is amplitude modulation (AM), pursued by many vintage amateur radio enthusiasts and aficionados of vacuum tube technology.

Demonstrating a proficiency in Morse code was for many years a requirement to obtain an amateur license to transmit on frequencies below 30&nbsp;MHz. Following changes in international regulations in 2003, countries are no longer required to demand proficiency.<ref name=“fcc06-178a1”>

</ref> The United States Federal Communications Commission, for example, phased out this requirement for all license classes on February 23, 2007.<ref name=“e7-729”>

</ref><ref name=“morsedropped1”>

</ref>

Modern personal computers have encouraged the use of digital modes such as radioteletype (RTTY) which previously required cumbersome mechanical equipment.<ref name=“Missouri”>

</ref> Hams led the development of packet radio in the 1970s, which has employed protocols such as AX.25 and TCP/IP. Specialized digital modes such as PSK31 allow real-time, low-power communications on the shortwave bands. Echolink using Voice over IP technology has enabled amateurs to communicate through local Internet-connected repeaters and radio nodes,<ref>

</ref> while IRLP has allowed the linking of repeaters to provide greater coverage area. Automatic link establishment (ALE) has enabled continuous amateur radio networks to operate on the high frequency bands with global coverage. Other modes, such as FSK441 using software such as WSJT, are used for weak signal modes including meteor scatter and moonbounce communications.

Fast scan amateur television has gained popularity as hobbyists adapt inexpensive consumer video electronics like camcorders and video cards in PCs. Because of the wide bandwidth and stable signals required, amateur television is typically found in the 70&nbsp;cm (420&nbsp;MHz–450&nbsp;MHz) frequency range, though there is also limited use on 33&nbsp;cm (902&nbsp;MHz–928&nbsp;MHz), 23&nbsp;cm (1240&nbsp;MHz–1300&nbsp;MHz) and higher. These requirements also effectively limit the signal range to between 20 and 60&nbsp;miles (30&nbsp;km–100&nbsp;km).

Linked repeater systems, however, can allow transmissions of VHF and higher frequencies across hundreds of miles.<ref name=“fsat”>

</ref> Repeaters are usually located on heights of land or tall structures and allow operators to communicate over hundreds of miles using hand-held or mobile transceivers. Repeaters can also be linked together by using other amateur radio bands, landline, or the Internet.

, KF5BOC, Expedition 24 flight engineer, operates the NA1SS ham radio station in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. Equipment is a Kenwood TM-D700E transceiver.]] Amateur radio satellites can be accessed, some using a hand-held transceiver (HT), even, at times, using the factory “rubber duck” antenna.<ref>

</ref> Hams also use the moon, the aurora borealis, and the ionized trails of meteors as reflectors of radio waves.<ref name=“WJST”>

</ref> Hams can also contact the International Space Station (ISS) because many astronauts and cosmonauts are licensed as amateur radio operators.<ref name=“ARISS”>

</ref><ref name=“astrohams”>

</ref>

Amateur radio operators use their amateur radio station to make contacts with individual hams as well as participating in round table discussion groups or “rag chew sessions” on the air. Some join in regularly scheduled on-air meetings with other amateur radio operators, called “nets” (as in “networks”), which are moderated by a station referred to as “Net Control”.<ref name=“netcontrol”>

</ref> Nets can allow operators to learn procedures for emergencies, be an informal round table, or cover specific interests shared by a group.

Amateur radio operators, using battery- or generator-powered equipment, often provide essential communications services when regular channels are unavailable due to natural disaster or other disruptive events.

Licensing

and several wire antennas]]

All countries that license citizens to use amateur radio require operators to display knowledge and understanding of key concepts, usually by passing an exam; however some authorities also recognize certain educational or professional qualifications (such as a degree in electrical engineering) in lieu.<ref>

</ref>

In response, hams receive operating privileges in larger segments of the radio frequency spectrum using a wide variety of communication techniques with higher power levels permitted compared to unlicensed personal radio services such as CB radio, Family Radio Service or PMR446 that require type-approved equipment restricted in frequency, range, and power.

Amateur licensing is a routine civil administrative matter in many countries. Amateurs therein must pass an examination to demonstrate technical knowledge, operating competence and awareness of legal and regulatory requirements in order to avoid interference with other amateurs and other radio services. A series of exams are often available, each progressively more challenging and granting more privileges: greater frequency availability, higher power output, permitted experimentation, and in some countries, distinctive call signs. Some countries, such as the United Kingdom and Australia, have begun requiring a practical training course in addition to the written exams in order to obtain a beginner's license, which they call a Foundation License.

Amateur radio licensing in the United States exemplifies the way in which some countries award different levels of amateur radio licenses based on technical knowledge: three sequential levels of licensing exams (Technician Class, General Class and Amateur Extra Class) are currently offered, which allow operators who pass them access to larger portions of the Amateur Radio spectrum and more desirable (shorter) call signs.

In some countries, an amateur radio license is necessary in order to purchase or possess amateur radio equipment.<ref>

</ref> An amateur radio license is only valid in the country in which it is issued or in another country that has a reciprocal licensing agreement with the issuing country.

Both the requirements for and privileges granted to a licensee vary from country to country, but generally follow the international regulations and standards established by the International Telecommunication Union<ref name=ituars>

</ref> and World Radio Conferences.

In most countries, an individual will be assigned a call sign with their license. In some countries, a separate “station license” is required for any station used by an amateur radio operator. Amateur radio licenses may also be granted to organizations or clubs. Some countries only allow ham radio operators to operate club stations. Others, such as Syria and Cuba restrict all operation by foreigners to club stations only. Radio transmission permits are closely controlled by nations' governments because clandestine uses of radio can be made, and, because radio waves propagate beyond national boundaries, radio is an international matter.

Licensing requirements

Prospective amateur radio operators are examined on understanding of the key concepts of electronics, radio equipment, antennas, radio propagation, RF safety, and the radio regulations of the government granting the license. These examinations are sets of questions typically posed in either a short answer or multiple-choice format. Examinations can be administered by bureaucrats, non-paid certified examiners, or previously licensed amateur radio operators.

The ease with which an individual can acquire an amateur radio license varies from country to country. In some countries, examinations may be offered only once or twice a year in the national capital and can be inordinately bureaucratic (for example in India) or challenging because some amateurs must undergo difficult security approval (as in Iran). A handful of countries, currently only Yemen and North Korea, simply do not issue amateur radio licenses to their citizens, although in both cases a limited number of foreign visitors have been permitted to obtain amateur licenses in the past decade. Some developing countries, especially those in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, require the payment of annual license fees that can be prohibitively expensive for most of their citizens. A few small countries may not have a national licensing process and may instead require prospective amateur radio operators to take the licensing examinations of a foreign country. In countries with the largest numbers of amateur radio licensees, such as Japan, the United States, Canada, and most of the countries in Europe, there are frequent license examinations opportunities in major cities.

Granting a separate license to a club or organization generally requires that an individual with a current and valid amateur radio license who is in good standing with the telecommunications authority assumes responsibility for any operations conducted under the club license or club call sign. A few countries may issue special licenses to novices or beginners that do not assign the individual a call sign but instead require the newly licensed individual to operate from stations licensed to a club or organization for a period of time before a higher class of license can be acquired.

Reciprocal licensing

File:Amateur Radio International Agreements.png|right|300px|thumb|
'''Reciprocal Agreements by Country'''
{{legend|#c4000a|CEPT Member Nations}} {{legend|#f2f204|IARP Member Nations}} {{legend|orange|Members of CEPT and IARP}} {{legend

A reciprocal licensing agreement between two countries allows bearers of an amateur radio license in one country under certain conditions to legally operate an amateur radio station in the other country without having to obtain an amateur radio license from the country being visited, or the bearer of a valid license in one country can receive a separate license and a call sign in another country, both of which have a mutually-agreed reciprocal licensing approvals. Reciprocal licensing requirements vary from country to country. Some countries have bilateral or multilateral reciprocal operating agreements allowing hams to operate within their borders with a single set of requirements. Some countries lack reciprocal licensing systems.

When traveling abroad, visiting amateur operators must follow the rules of the country in which they wish to operate. Some countries have reciprocal international operating agreements allowing hams from other countries to operate within their borders with just their home country license. Other host countries require that the visiting ham apply for a formal permit, or even a new host country-issued license, in advance.

The reciprocal recognition of licenses frequently not only depends on the involved licensing authorities, but also on the nationality of the bearer. As an example, in the US, foreign licenses are only recognized if the bearer does not have US citizenship and holds no US license (which may differ in terms of operating privileges and restrictions). Conversely, a US citizen may operate under reciprocal agreements in Canada, but not a non-US citizen holding a US license.

Newcomers

Many people start their involvement in amateur radio by finding a local club. Clubs often provide information about licensing, local operating practices, and technical advice. Newcomers also often study independently by purchasing books or other materials, sometimes with the help of a mentor, teacher, or friend. Established amateurs who help newcomers are often referred to as “Elmers”, as coined by Rodney Newkirk, W9BRD,<ref>

</ref> within the ham community.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> In addition, many countries have national amateur radio societies which encourage newcomers and work with government communications regulation authorities for the benefit of all radio amateurs. The oldest of these societies is the Wireless Institute of Australia, formed in 1910; other notable societies are the Radio Society of Great Britain, the American Radio Relay League, Radio Amateurs of Canada, Bangladesh NGOs Network for Radio and Communication, the New Zealand Association of Radio Transmitters and South African Radio League. (See Amateur radio organizations)

Call signs

An amateur radio operator uses a call sign on the air to legally identify the operator or station.<ref>

</ref> In some countries, the call sign assigned to the station must always be used, whereas in other countries, the call sign of either the operator or the station may be used.<ref name=“amateurlicences”>

</ref> In certain jurisdictions, an operator may also select a “vanity” call sign although these must also conform to the issuing government's allocation and structure used for Amateur Radio call signs.<ref name=“vanity”>

</ref> Some jurisdictions, such as the U.S., require that a fee be paid to obtain such a vanity call sign; in others, such as the UK, a fee is not required and the vanity call sign may be selected when the license is applied for.

Call sign structure as prescribed by the ITU, consists of three parts which break down as follows, using the call sign ZS1NAT as an example:

  1. ZS – Shows the country from which the call sign originates and may also indicate the license class. (This call sign is licensed in South Africa. CEPT Class is no longer “encoded” in South African callsigns. Where specific classes of amateur radio license exist, the call signs may be assigned by class, but the specifics vary by issuing country.)
  2. 1 – Gives the subdivision of the country or territory indicated in the first part (this one refers to the Western Cape).
  3. NAT – The final part is unique to the holder of the license, identifying that station specifically.

Many countries do not follow the ITU convention for the numeral. In the United Kingdom the original calls G0xxx, G2xxx, G3xxx, G4xxx, were Full (A) License Holders along with the last M0xxx full call signs issued by the City & Guilds examination authority in December 2003. Additional full licenses were originally granted in respect of (B) Licensees with G1xxx, G6xxx, G7xxx, G8xxx and 1991 onward with M1xxx calls. The newer three level Intermediate licensees are 2E1xxx and 2E0xx and basic Foundation license holders are granted M3xxx, M6xxx call signs.<ref>

</ref> In the United States, for non-Vanity licenses, the numeral indicates the geographical district the holder resided in when the license was issued. Prior to 1978, US hams were required to obtain a new call sign if they moved out of their geographic district.

Also, for smaller entities, a numeral may be part of the country identification. For example, VP2xxx is in the British West Indies (subdivided into VP2Exx Anguilla, VP2Mxx Montserrat, and VP2Vxx British Virgin Islands), VP5xxx is in the Turks and Caicos Islands, VP6xxx is on Pitcairn Island, VP8xxx is in the Falklands, and VP9xxx is in Bermuda.

Online callbooks or callsign databases can be browsed or searched to find out who holds a specific callsign.<ref>

</ref> Non-exhaustive lists of famous people who hold or have held amateur radio callsigns have also been compiled and published.<ref>

</ref>

Many jurisdictions issue specialty vehicle registration plates to licensed amateur radio operators often in order to facilitate their movement during an emergency.<ref name=“ARRL-plates”>

</ref><ref>

</ref> The fees for application and renewal are usually less than the standard rate for specialty plates.<ref name=“ARRL-plates”/><ref>

</ref>

Privileges

In most administrations, unlike other RF spectrum users, radio amateurs may build or modify transmitting equipment for their own use within the amateur spectrum without the need to obtain government certification of the equipment.<ref>OFTA, Equipment for Amateur Station: ''Radio amateurs are free to choose any radio equipment designed for the amateur service. Radio amateurs may also design and build their own equipment provided that the requirements and limitations specified in the Amateur Station Licence and Schedules thereto are complied with. ''

</ref><ref>

</ref> Licensed amateurs can also use any frequency in their bands (rather than being allocated fixed frequencies or channels) and can operate medium to high-powered equipment on a wide range of frequencies<ref>

</ref> so long as they meet certain technical parameters including occupied bandwidth, power, and maintenance of spurious emission.

Radio amateurs have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum, usually allowing choice of an effective frequency for communications across a local, regional, or worldwide path. The shortwave bands, or HF, are suitable for worldwide communication, and the VHF and UHF bands normally provide local or regional communication, while the microwave bands have enough space, or bandwidth, for amateur television transmissions and high-speed computer networks.

File:International amateur radio symbol.svg

member societies. The diamond holds a circuit diagram featuring components common to every radio: an antenna, inductor and ground.]]

In most countries, an amateur radio license grants permission to the license holder to own, modify, and operate equipment that is not certified by a governmental regulatory agency. This encourages amateur radio operators to experiment with home-constructed or modified equipment. The use of such equipment must still satisfy national and international standards on spurious emissions.

The amount of output power an amateur radio licensee may legally use varies from country to country. Although allowable power levels are moderate by commercial standards, they are sufficient to enable global communication. Power limits vary from country to country and between license classes within a country. For example, the peak envelope power limits for the highest available license classes in a few selected countries are: 2.25 kW in Canada,<ref name =“Industry Canada”>

</ref> 1.5&nbsp;kW in the United States, 1.0&nbsp;kW in Belgium, Switzerland and New Zealand, 750&nbsp;W in Germany, 500&nbsp;W in Italy, 400&nbsp;W in Australia, India and the United Kingdom, and 150&nbsp;W in Oman. Lower license classes usually have lower power limits; for example, the lowest license class in the UK ( Foundation licence ) has a limit of 10&nbsp;W. Amateur radio operators are encouraged both by regulations and tradition of respectful use of the spectrum to use as little power as possible to accomplish the communication.<ref name=“FCC section 97.313”>

</ref>

Output power limits may also depend on the mode of transmission. In Australia, for example, 400&nbsp;W may be used for SSB transmissions, but FM and other modes are limited to 120&nbsp;W.

The point at which power output is measured may also affect transmissions. The United Kingdom measures at the point the antenna is connected to the signal feed cable, which means the radio system may transmit more than 400&nbsp;W to overcome signal loss in the cable; conversely, Germany measures power at the output of the final amplification stage, which results in a loss in radiated power with longer cable feeds.

Certain countries permit amateur radio licence holders to hold a Notice of Variation that allows higher power to be used than normally allowed for certain specific purposes. E.g. in the UK some amateur radio licence holders are allowed to transmit using (33dBw) 2.0&nbsp;kW for experiments entailing using the moon as a passive radio reflector (known as Earth-Moon-Earth communication) (EME).

Band plans and frequency allocations

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) governs the allocation of communications frequencies worldwide, with participation by each nation's communications regulation authority. National communications regulators have some liberty to restrict access to these bandplan frequencies or to award additional allocations as long as radio services in other countries do not suffer interference. In some countries, specific emission types are restricted to certain parts of the radio spectrum, and in most other countries, International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) member societies adopt voluntary plans to ensure the most effective use of spectrum.

In a few cases, a national telecommunication agency may also allow hams to use frequencies outside of the internationally allocated amateur radio bands. In Trinidad and Tobago, hams are allowed to use a repeater which is located on 148.800&nbsp;MHz. This repeater is used and maintained by the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), but may be used by radio amateurs in times of emergency or during normal times to test their capability and conduct emergency drills. This repeater can also be used by non-ham NEMA staff and REACT members. In Australia and New Zealand ham operators are authorized to use one of the UHF TV channels. In the U.S., amateur radio operators providing essential communication needs in connection with the immediate safety of human life and immediate protection of property when normal communication systems are not available may use any frequency including those of other radio services such as police and fire and in cases of disaster in Alaska may use the statewide emergency frequency of 5167.5&nbsp;kHz with restrictions upon emissions.<ref name=“FCC section 97.401 and 97.403”>

</ref>

Similarly, amateurs in the United States may apply to be registered with the Military Auxiliary Radio System (MARS). Once approved and trained, these amateurs also operate on US government military frequencies to provide contingency communications and morale message traffic support to the military services.

Modes of communication

Amateurs use a variety of voice, text, image, and data communications modes over radio. Generally new modes can be tested in the amateur radio service, although national regulations may require disclosure of a new mode to permit radio licensing authorities to monitor the transmissions. Encryption, for example, is not generally permitted in the Amateur Radio service except for the special purpose of satellite vehicle control uplinks. The following is a partial list of the modes of communication used, where the mode includes both modulation types and operating protocols.

Voice

Image

Text and data

Modes by activity

The following “modes” use no one specific modulation scheme but rather are classified by the activity of the communication.

See also

References

;General References <div class=“references-small”>

:Australia ::*Wireless Institute of Australia (2005). The Foundation Licence Manual: Your Entry into Amateur Radio. Wireless Institute of Australia, November, 2005. ISBN 0-9758342-0-7

:Canada ::*Cleveland-Iliffe, John, and Smith, Geoffrey Read (1995). The Canadian Amateur Study Guide for the Basic Qualification. Fifth Edition, Second Printing. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Radio Amateurs of Canada. ISBN 1-895400-08-2

:India ::*Amateur radio licensing in India. Retrieved Aug. 13, 2007.

:United Kingdom ::*Betts, Alan (2001). Foundation Licence – Now!. London, United Kingdom: Radio Society of Great Britain, December, 2001. ISBN 1-872309-80-1

:United States ::*Straw, R. Dean, Reed, Dana G., Carman, R. Jan, and Wolfgang, Larry D. (ed.) (2003). Now You're Talking!. Fifth Edition. Newington, Connecticut, U.S.: American Radio Relay League, May, 2003. ISBN 0-87259-881-0 ::*American Radio Relay League (2003). The ARRL FCC Rule Book: Complete Guide to the FCC Regulations. 13th Edition. Newington, Connecticut, U.S.: American Radio Relay League, August, 2003. ISBN 0-87259-900-0 ::*Silver, H. Ward (2004). Ham Radio For Dummies. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., April, 2004. ISBN 0-7645-5987-7

Further reading

External links

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Amateur radio


"Amateur Radio", site:conservapedia.com "Amateur Radio", Amateur Radio

see AR-15 and Build Your Own AR-15, see AK-47 and Build Your Own AK-47

Specific References
General References

Based on research from diverse Fair Use Disclaimer Sources:

Snippet from Wikipedia: Amateur radio

Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication. The term "amateur" is used to specify "a duly authorised person interested in radioelectric practice with a purely personal aim and without pecuniary interest;" (either direct monetary or other similar reward) and to differentiate it from commercial broadcasting, public safety (such as police and fire), or professional two-way radio services (such as maritime, aviation, taxis, etc.).

The amateur radio service (amateur service and amateur-satellite service) is established by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) through the Radio Regulations. National governments regulate technical and operational characteristics of transmissions and issue individual stations licenses with an identifying call sign. Prospective amateur operators are tested for their understanding of key concepts in electronics and the host government's radio regulations.

Radio amateurs use a variety of voice, text, image, and data communications modes and have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum. This enables communication across a city, region, country, continent, the world, or even into space. In many countries, amateur radio operators may also send, receive, or relay radio communications between computers or transceivers connected to secure virtual private networks on the Internet.

Amateur radio is officially represented and coordinated by the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU), which is organized in three regions and has as its members the national amateur radio societies which exist in most countries. According to an estimate made in 2011 by the American Radio Relay League, two million people throughout the world are regularly involved with amateur radio. About 830,000 amateur radio stations are located in IARU Region 2 (the Americas) followed by IARU Region 3 (South and East Asia and the Pacific Ocean) with about 750,000 stations. A significantly smaller number, about 400,000, are located in IARU Region 1 (Europe, Middle East, CIS, Africa).

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amateur_radio.txt · Last modified: 2019/12/05 08:19 (external edit)